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MAT Geography

Delta Triangular soil deposit at the mouth of a river
Distributaries Channels carrying water off the main stream of the river
Tributaries Small bodies of water that feed into the main stream of a river
Source Place of origin for a river
River Basin Area drained by a river system
Mouth Where a river empties into another body of water
Chemical Weathering Breaking down rock mass into smaller particles by interaction between surface and underground water and Chem in the rock mass
Continents Great divisions of land on the earth: N. America, S. America, Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Europe, & Australia.
Erosion Wearing away of the earths surface by moving ice (glaciers), water, or wind.
Extrusive vulcanism Molten material hardens on the earth's surface (e.g. basalt)
Vulcanism The outpouring of molten material from cracks in the earth.
Intrusive vulcanism Molten material hardens before it reaches the earth's surface (e.g. granite), not exposed on the earth's surface.
Lava Above ground molten material
Magma Underground molten material
Pangaea Supercontinent of 200 million years ago later separated into Gondwana and Laurasia which further separated into todays continents.
Faulting Break in earth's crust.
Folding Intense bending of earth's crust, produces accordion affect also referred to as the ridge and valley topography.
Glaciation Movement of continental and alpine ace and snow that rubs and shapes topography
Topography Detailed, precises description of a place or region
Geomorphology The study of landform origins, characteristics, and evolutions and their processes.
Gravity Transfer The force of gravity is the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies at or near its surface.
Igneous rocks (Like ignite) Formed by cooling and hardening of the earths material.
Loess Fine fertile soil that is transported by wind (in glaciated regions)
Metamorphic rocks Igneous or sedimentary rocks transformed due to heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.
Pacific Ring of Fire Series of volcanoes surrounding the Pacific Ocean, includes 80% of the world's active volcanoes
Physical Weathering Breaking down rock mass into smaller particles by force or pressure
Plate tectonic process Portions of the earth's mantle and crust on separate slowly moving "plates". Responsible for mountain-building, volcanoes, and earthquakes.
Sedimentary Rocks Composed of particles of gravel, sand, silt (fine particles of soil), and clay that were eroded from other rocks.
Warping Gentle bending of the earth's crust.
Weathering Breaking down rock mass into smaller particles
Antarctic Circle 66.5 Degrees north
Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degrees north
Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 degrees south
Arctic Circle 66.5 degrees south
Cartography Construction of maps
Conic Projection (con as in cone) projection of the globe onto a cone
Contour interval vertical distance separating two adjacent contour lines
Contour line Line along which all other points are of equal elevation above or below a datum (single plane, usually indicating mean sea level.
Cylindrical projection Projection of the earth onto a cylinder (e.g. navigation uses
Equidistant Can be centered anywhere, facilitating the correct measurement of distances from that point to all others.
Gnomonic Projections All great circles appear as straight lines
Lines of Latitude (Parallels) (Fatty Latty) Run east and west. Measure the distance north and south of the equator. Highest latitude is 90 degrees N. (north pole) and S. (south pole)
Lines of Longitude (meridians) Run north and south. Meausre the distance east and west of the prime meridian The highest longitude is 180 degrees, called the International Date Line
Planar (azimuthal) Projection of a globe grid onto a plane (used in atlases)
Scale Ratio between the measurements of something on a map and the corresponding measurement on the earth. (e.g. 1 inch to 1 mile)
Topographical features Portray the surface terrain of small areas, usually in detail.
Air pressure The weight of air as measured at a point on the earth's surface (barometric pressure)
Air Temperature Controlled by the intensity and duration of radiation from the sun (solar energy). Generally, air temperature decreases with increasing elevation.
Atmospheric Moisture Precipitation is water deposited on the earths surface.
Convection Results from the flow of air that replaces warm rising air and the rapid movement of replacement air.
Convectional Preciptiation Caused by rising, heated, moisture-laden air (rain or hail can occur)
Cyclonic (frontal) precipitation Occurs in mid-altitudes as cool and warm air masses meet
Ocean currents Wind direction and the differences in density (of water) cause water to move in paths from one part of the the ocean to another
Orographic Precipitation Occurs as warm air is forced to rise because of some obstruction (hill or mountain)
Pressure gradients Occur with differences in air pressure between areas that induce air to flow from areas of high to areas of low pressure
storms occur whenever two ari masses come into contact (cyclone, hurricane, tornado)
Wind belt Prevailing surface wind movements responding to pressure gradients (jet stream, monsoon)
Humid subtropical Soil may become leached and slightly acidic. Mild winters; hot and humid summers
Acid rain from the burning of fossil fuels, generally with a pH<5
Aquifer Layer of water-bearing. Porous rocks lying between impermeable layers
Biocides Herbicides and pesticides
Ecosystem Population of organisms existing together in an area with the resources (air, water, soil, chemicals) upon which it depends.
Fertilizers excess nutrients in water (eutrophication
Food chain transfer of energy and material from one organism to another
Greenhouse effect Gases released concentrate in the atmosphere, thus providing an insulation barrier of heat, causing warming of the earth.
Hydrologic cycle involves the cycling of water in different forms and composition through evaporation and transpiration (emission of water vapor from plants)
Hydrosphere Surface and subsurface waters. (e.g. oceans, lakes, glaciers, groundwaters) not immediately available for use
Nonrenewable resource Are generated in nature slowly and in small quantities (crude oil, natural gas, coal, synthetic fuels)
Ozone Formed from automobile and industrial gas emissions
Renewable resource Materials that can be regenerated in nature faster than society can recover them (biomass [living matter], wood, waste, hydroelectric power, solar power)
Resource a naturally occurring, recoverable material that a society perceives to be useful to its economic and material wellbeing
Resource reserves nuclear energy (fission process)
Troposphere the layer of air closest to the earth, extending upward about 7-8 miles
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Annual number of live births per population of 1000 (without regard to sex or age)
Crude death Rate (CDR) annual number of deaths per population of 1,000
Crude population density the number of people per unit are of land, usually within the boundaries of a political entity
Demographic Transition Model Traces the changing levels of human fertility and mortality over time. Give a relationship between population grown and economic development
Rate of natural increase The crude death rate is subtracted from the the crude birth rate (excluding the effects of immigrations or emigration)
Total fertility rate (TFR) More accurate, since it gives the average number of children that would be born to each woman if during her child-bearing years she bore children at the current years rate for women her age
Assimilation Process of merging into a composite culture and becoming culturally homogenized (e.g. one culture)
Culture hearth cultural innovation-ideas that diffuse from the origin to other places around the world.
Cultural landscape part of the landscape modified by humans
cultural traits the smallest distinctive items of a culture
Dialect regional or socioeconomic variation of a more widely spoken language
Environmental determinism Belief that the physical environment by itself shapes humans, their actions, and their thoughts
Ethnocentrism Believing one's own people and culture as setting the proper standard for others
Language Family a group of languages thought to have a common origin in a single earlier tongue
Possibilism The view point that people are dynamic forces of cultural development (more widely accepted)
Created by: 1153729507
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