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Atrophy Decrease in cell size, resulting in reduced tissue mass Reduced use or stimulation of tissue, aging
Hypertrophy Condition: Increase in cell size, resulting in enlarged tissue mass Consistent exercises or excessive hormonal stimulation
Hyperplasia Increased number of cells, resulting in enlarged tissue mass Increased demand from the body, excessive hormonal stimulation, inflammation
Metaplasia Mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type, resulting in a new wall of tissues Vitamin A deficiency, chronic irritations
Dysplasia Cells vary in size and shape within a tissue Chronic irritation infection, precancerous change
Anaplasia Undifferentiated cells with variable nuclear and cell structures
Neoplasm New growth, commonly called tumor
Ischemia Deficit of oxygen in the cells
Hypoxia Reduced oxygen in tissues
Exogenous From environment
Endogenous from inside the body
Abnormal metabolites − Genetic disorders − Inborn errors of metabolism − Altered metabolism
Necrosis The process when a group of cells die
Liquefaction Necrosis Dead cells liquefy due to release of cell enzymes
Coagulative Necrosis Cell proteins are altered or denatured
Fat Necrosis Fatty tissue is broken down into fatty acids
Caseous Necrosis • A form of coagulation necrosis • Formation of thick, yellowish cheesy substance
Infarction An area of dead cells as a result of oxygen deprivation
Gangrene An area of necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria causing infection. It often leads to amputation.
Non-specific • First line of defense - Mechanical barrier - Unbroken skin and mucous membranes - Secretions such as tears and gastric juices • Second line of defense - Phagocytosis - Inflammation
Specific - A unique response to specific substances - The third line of defense (an immune response)
Phagocytosis a cellular process where phagocytes (a type of white blood cells) surround, ingest, and destroy the microorganism.
Antibody-mediated immunity / Humoral immunity Production of specific antibodies - By B lymphocytes
Cell-mediated immunity activation of specific types of white blood cells) - By T lymphocytes
Inflammatory Response: Local Effects • Redness - Increased blood flow to injury • Swelling (edema) - Protein and fluid move in the interstitial space • Pain - Increased pressure of fluid on nerve and the release of chemical mediators • Loss of function - cells continuously lack nutrients
Serous exudate Watery, consists primarily of fluid, some proteins, and white blood cells
Fibrous exudate Thick, sticky, high cell and fibrin content
Purulent exudate Thick, yellow-green, contains more leukocytes, cell debris, and microorganisms
Abscess exudate Localized accumulation of purulent exudate in a tissue
Hemorrhagic exudate Exudate that causes blood vessels to rupture (pigments of blood)
Pyrexia Mild fever - Common if inflammation is extensive - Release of pyrogens
Inflammatory Response: Systemic Effects • Mild fever (pyrexia) • Malaise • Fatigue • Headache • Anorexia
Chronic Inflammation • Presence of more lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts (white blood cells) • May lead to further tissue destruction • More fibrous scar tissue • May lead to granuloma developing around foreign object
Treatment of Inflammation • Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) • Acetaminophen • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) • COX-2 Inhibitors (a newer type of NSAID) • Glucocorticoids
Therapies for Inflammation RICE approach - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Types of Healing: Resolution Regeneration Replacement • Resolution Minimal tissue damage Tissue returns to normal when damaged cells recover • Regeneration Damaged tissue replaced with cells that are functional • Replacement Functional tissue replaced by scar tissue Loss of function
Granulation tissue A tissue that forms during wound healing. It is surrounded by connective tissue and with a rich supply of new capillaries.
First Intention Healing - Wounds with minimal tissue loss - Small wound/incision - e.g. Paper cut
Second Intention Healing - Wounds that do not easily heal - Large open wounds - e.g. Pressure ulcers
Complications: Scar Formation Contractures and obstructions - Scar tissue is non-elastic - Can restrict range of movement - Can cause shortening or narrowing of structures
Complications: Scar Formation Adhesions Bands of scar tissue joining two surfaces that are normally separated
Complications: Scar Formation Hypertrophic scar - Overgrowth of fibrous tissue - Leads to hard ridges of scar tissue or keloid formation
Antigens - Often proteins, polysaccharides, or glycoproteins - On the cell's surface - Usually exogenous - Activates immune system by producing matching antibodies
Tolerance Immune system under normal conditions ignores self(belonging to the person) cells
Specific response Involves antigens, antibodies, immune cells, chemical mediators Store the specific response in its memory for future reference
Lymphoid structures • Lymph nodes • Spleen • Tonsils • Intestinal lymphoid tissue • Lymphatic circulation
Tissue - Bone Marrow - Thymus • Bone marrow - Origination of immune cells • Thymus - Maturation of immune cells
Self antigens - Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) proteins label cells of the individual - Immune system ignores "self" cells
Antibodies Proteins that bind to matching antigens to destroy it
IgG Most common in blood
IgM First to increase in immune response
IgA In secretions e.g. Tears, saliva and mucous membranes, colostrum
IgE Allergic response - Causes release of histamine and other chemicals - Results in inflammation
IgD Attached to and activates B cells
Immune cells - Macrophages - Lymphocytes Are white blood cells that play a role in the body
Macrophages • Initiation of immune response • Phagocytic cells - engulf foreign material • Display antigens of foreign material • Secrete chemicals - Activates additional lymphocytes and the inflammatory response • Present in liver, lungs, lymph nodes
B-lymphocytes • Responsible for production of antibodies • Matures in the bone marrow - Proceed to spleen and lymphoid tissue • Becomes: - Plasma cells (produce antibodies) - B-memory cells (form clones of plasma cells)
Plasma cell Produce antibodies
B-memory cells form clones of plasma cells
T Lymphocytes • From bone marrow stem cells • Further differentiation in thymus
Cytotoxic T-killer cells Destroys antigens
Helper T cells Activates B or T cells)
Memory T cells Remembers the antigen for re-exposure
Complement System • A group of inactive proteins circulating in blood • When activated -> stimulates release of other chemical mediators promoting inflammation, phagocytosis • Causes destruction of antigen or may attach to a microorganism making it ready for phagocytosis
Chemical Mediators • Can signal a cellular response or cause cellular damage • Involved in inflammation and immune reactions - E.g., histamine, interleukins
Titer Measures levels of serum immunoglobulins
Indirect Coombs test Detects Rh blood incompatibility
ELISA Detect HIV antibodies
MHC typing Tissue matching before transplant procedures
Created by: tla
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