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Week 3

09/27

QuestionAnswer
Q How much of the vertebral column does the spinal cord occupy in an adult? A 2/3
Q Why does the spinal cord have enlargements in the cervical and lumbar regions? A There are increased numbers of neurons for ventral primary rami of the brachial plexus (cervical), and lumbar/sacral plexus' (lumbar)
Q The cord levels of enlargement in the cervical area are C4-T1. What are the cord levels of enlargement in the lumbar area? A L2-S3
QThe spinal cord tapers into a cone around L1-2 IVD, called what? A conus medularis
Q After the spinal cord tapers into the conus medularis at L1-2, how much further does the meningeal sac extend? A to S2
Q The connective tissue layer of the spinal cord is called the pia mater, which continues inferiorly to attach to the coccyx. If the pia mater is inside the dura mater, how does this work? A think of when you poke your finger into a semi-deflated balloon. The pia mater pierces the dural sac, but sort of takes it along as a covering down to the coccyx. This essentially anchors the whole dural sac to the coccyx.
Q Inside the dural sac the filum terminale is _____ mater, and outside it is _______ mater A pia mater inside, pia AND dura mater outside
Q This is a bundle of n roots that continue inf to the medullary cone to arrive at lower IVF's. A cauda equina
Q There is a large dural space in the dural sac that opens up inf to the medullary cone, through which the cauda equina travels. What is this space called? A Lumbar cistern***
Q There are many small n branches from the spinal cord, what are these called, and what do they converge to form? A rootlets, to form roots. (think dorsal/ventral)
Q Are ventral roots afferent or efferent? Where do these roots go? A Efferent to mm/glands
Q Do proprioceptors enter the dorsal root or the ventral root of the spinal cord? A They enter the dorsal root. Dorsal root is Afferent nn headed TOWARD the spinal column.
Q the dorsal root ganglion os a wide spot in the dorsal root. What causes this, or what is found there? A cell bodies of Afferent neurons.
Q are dorsal root ganglion located inside or outside the IVF? A inside
Q The dorsal/ventral n roots converge to form the spinal n, which then splits into the dorsal/ventral rami. What is the first branch off of the spinal n. BEFORE the rami split? A Recurrent meningeal nn.
Q The recurrent meningeal nn. transmit pain. What three structures do these nn. innervate? A Rec. Men. N. trasmits pain from the dura, the bone, and the disc
Q The three meninges are as follows: dura, arachnoid, pia. What are the names of the spaces between these? A epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid (self-explanatory as to location)
Q Which of the meninges is highly innervated and vascularized? A The dura mater
Q This dura attaches both to the foramen magnum, and the coccyx A Dura mater. IT attaches to the coccyx via the filum terminale (this is the EXTERNAL filum terminale, b/c it is outside the dural sac)
Q This meninge extends into the IVF's to form dural "sleeves" for he spinal nn. A dura mater
Q This dura is avascular and NOT attached to the dural sac A the arachnoid mater. IT is held against the dural sac by CSF pressure
Q There is a space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. What is the name of the CT strands that span this space? A arachnoid trabeculae
Q So, I heard that _____ is intimate with SC. A the pia mater, w/ the spinal cord. They are inseperable.
Q This meninge covers the roots of spinal nn and spinal blood vessels. A pia mater
Q These stretch from the pia mater midway between the dorsal/ventral rootlets, to the inner surface of the dura mater A dentate ligaments (this is how the arachnoid membrane connects to the dura, although it is not "attached")
Q Which of the spaces between the meninge is filled with CSF, and traversed by trabeculae? A the subarachnoid space
Q This space between meninges is usually closed, but has potential to open up with pathology and death A subdural space
Q Where is the epidural space located? What is found here? A between the vertebrae and the dura mater. it is filled with fat, and blood vessels
Q Do you remember what produces CSF and where? A CSF is produced in the ventricles of the brain by epindymal cells
Q What is the composition of CSF, and what is it's function? A CSF is plasma like with more chloride ions and less glucose. It functions as a chock absorber
Created by: GrossAnatomy1