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AP Finals Clare Note

Biconcave cells is a characteristic of red blood cells
White blood cell that is a granulocytes basophil
White blood cell agranulocyte monocyte
White blood cell count 5,000
Red blood cell count millions
Platelet count 150,000 platelets
Cells act against foreign substances lymphocytes
Has cytoplasmic fragments platelets
Element in hemoglobin carries oxygen iron
Most phagocytic cells neutrophils and monocytes
How cells move toward damaged cells releasing chemicals positive feedback
Most important action of plasma protein albumin maintaining blood osmotic pressure
Causes sickle cell anemia genetic abnormal form of hemoglobin
Jaundice is caused by too much bilirubin
Jaundice is also called icterus
Form of anemia caused by lack of dietary iron hypochromic anemia
Pus composed off leukocytes, damaged cells, and bacteria
Platelet plugs release serotonin
Basic stage of blood clot formation fibrinogen to fibrin
Thrombocytopenia affects number of platelets (too few)
Aglutinogen type AB contains AB
Aglutinin type AB contains none
Universal donor O
Clot busting drug derived from –a bacteria called streptokinase
LDL receptors found of surface of RBcells because –dont want high concentration of LDL
A lack of LDL receptors causes concentration of LDL and blood pressure increase
Loose fitting sac of tissue around heart pericardium
Valve that opens when ventricles contract aortic semilunar valve and pulmonary semilunar valve
Self exciting tissue
Order of electrical charge through heart SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers
During ventricular systole there is what kind of pressure greater
T wave is – ECG polarization of atrial muscle fiber
PQ interval cardiac impulse travels from –SA node to ventricle muscle fiber
Slow heart rate brachycardia
Serious fluttering of heart fibrillation
Most serious type of fibrillation ventricle fibrillation
Plasma protein albumin remains in blood to –maintain osmotic pressure
Venules turn into – veins
A diet high in unsaturated fat is not a factor for atherosclerosis
Right coronary artery branches from –aorta
Brachiocephalic vein branches from aorta
Left subclavian vein branches from aorta
External jugular drains blood from face
Teeth used for biting large amounts incisors
Causes tooth decay acid
Begins digestion of carbohydrates salivary amylase
Hiatal hernia weakness in abdominal diaphragm
Cholecystokinin is secreted by small intestine
Cholecystokinin is stimulated by fat
Gastric juice in esophagus is heartburn
Protein in pancreatic juice –trypsin
If the liver is damaged fat digestion is affected
Yellowish tint jaundice
Bile salts do what produce detergent action
Secretin stimulates release of pancreatic juice
Lymph carries away
Major function of large intestine absorption
During the defection reflex the diaphragm is lowered
Hemorrhoids blood vessel of anal column enlarges
Gastrin increases secretory activity of gastric glands
Gastrin stimulates cells growth in mucosa of stomach and intestines
Acute pancreatitis causes accumulation of –trypsin
Accumulation of Trypsin causes digestion of pancreas
Gall bladder connects to what duct at the common hepatic duct cystic duct
Lactose intolerant people don’t produce lactase
Peritoneal membrane is –fatty apron
Lactose increases –water in intestine
LDL delivers cholesterol to tissues
Caecum located on inferior end of –ascending colon
Inspiration is caused by atmospheric pressure 760 mm/Hg
Definition of inspiration movement of air from outside of body into and out of bronchial tree and alveoli
Pneumothorax puncture in thoracic wall that lets air into pleural cavity
Carbonic anhydrase is made by the combination of –Co2 and H20
Pneumothorax may collapse a lung because of the lungs elasticity
CO2 attaches better to –hemoglobin
Emphysema is –a decrease in alveolar elasticity
Microorganisms removed by sticky substances are destroyed by swallowing and digestive juices
Vocal cords located larynx
Alveoli tissue composed of –simple squamous ep
Laryngitis can cause obstruction of airway
Respiratory distress syndrome lack of surfactant in newborns
Glottis opening between vocal cords
Tidal volume amount of air during normal breath
Expiratory reserve forceful expiration in addition to tidal volume
Visceral and parietal pleura in lungs held by surface tension
Emphazyma decrease alveolar elasticity and
Spirometer measures tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume
If CO2 increases threating rate increases
Gas exchange between walls of alveoli diffusion
Ordinary air has how much oxygen 21%
Is the right kidney higher than the left no
Location of kidney behind parietal peritoneum
Correct sequence of movement of fluid in glomerulus proximal convoluted tubule, descending loop of Henle, ascending loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
Urine formation needs reabsorption, secretion, and filtration
If arteriole that supplies blood gets constricted, efferent arteriole decreases, glomerular filtrate decreases and hydrostatic pressure decreases
Afferent arteriole supplies blood to glomerulus
ADH regulates urine concentration and volume
Neurons in hypothalamus produce ADH
Lithotripsy destroys kidney stones by electric shock waves
Reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily in proximal convoluted tubule
Least likely to contain plasma proteins glomerular filtrate
Amino acids are present in glomerular filtrate
Gout high concentration of uric acid
Low arteriole pressure glomerular pressure and filtration decreases
Glucicena excess glucose
As osmotic pressure decreases glomerular filtration increases
Urine forced on ureter by peristaltic wave
Meiosis occurs in spermatogenesis and oogenesis
Epididymis leads to –ductus deferens
Androgens are male
Sperm meiosis produces 4 sperm cells with 23 chromosomes each
Amount of testosterone regulated by negative feedback
In female rep cycle, menstruation occurs when concentration of estrogen and progesterone are low
Testicular cancer originate from ep tissue of semiferious tubules
Male secondary characteristic hormone testosterone
Female structure that corresponds to penis clitoris
Cervix tube portion of uterus that goes down to vagina
Can be fertilized to produce zygote secondary oocyte
Inner layer of uterus endometrium
Moves egg down fallopian tube peristalsis and cilia
Detects abnormal cells in cervix pap smear
Female sex hormone estrogen
FSH stimulates follicle to start maturation process
Causes let down of milk in mammary gland prolactin
Athletes see disturbance in rep cycle due to –decrease in estrogen
Created by: kbaalman



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