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A&P Final Exam 2012

Human A&P Final Exam

Accessory nerve swallowing; pectoral girdle movement.
Afferent arterioles branches from the renal artery that lead to the glomerulus.
Alveolar sacs microscopic sacs found at the ends of alveolar ducts; site of CO2/O2 exchange in lungs.
Astrocytes most abundant & functionally diverse of the neuroglia.
Axon long thin extension that sends impulses to another neuron.
Blood most important biological suspension; composed of solid & liquid part.
Bronchioles passageway of air from trachea to alveoli.
Calyces 1st branch of renal pelvis; collects & carries newly formed urine from kidneys to renal pelvis.
Celiac trunk includes the gastric, splenic, & hepatic vessels.
Cell body (of a neuron) contains a nucleus with prominent nucleolus.
Cerebellum “little brain”; oversees postural muscles.
Chemotaxis an attraction to a specific chemical.
Choroid plexus where cerebrospinal fluid is produced.
Clot clotting factors & proteins in blood form a solid fibrin clot to permanently seal the break & stop blood flowing out of it.
Collecting duct collects newly formed urine & carries it from the cortex through the medulla to the calyx.
Columns groups of white matter tracts in the spinal cord.
Dendrites receives neural impulses & conducts them toward the cell body.
Diapedesis ability to move through vessel walls.
Diaphragm broad flat muscle that functions in inhalation & exhalation.
Diastolic pressure measure of arterial pressure when left ventricle is at rest.
Diencephalon the switching & relay center.
Efferent arterioles where blood leaves the glomerulus.
Endoneurium surrounds individual fibers within a nerve.
Ependymal cells line the ventricles (spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid).
Epineurium surrounds the entire nerve or groups of nerves.
Epithalamus consists of the pineal gland & habenular nuclei.
Erythropoiesis process of making red blood cells.
Facial nerve face, scalp, tongue sensation/movement.
Filtration movement of fluid & dissolved molecules by filtration pressure from the blood through the glomerulus in the bowman’s capsule.
Formed elements solid part of blood.
Gastric vessels supply the stomach.
Glomerulus capillary network tucked into the bowman’s capsule.
Glossopharyngeal nerve taste & swallowing
Gray matter groups of unmyelinated axons from many cell bodies.
Hematopoiesis red blood cell production in the red bone marrow.
Hemoglobin iron protein found in red blood cells to which oxygen binds.
Hepatic portal system directs blood from other digestive organs to the liver before blood returns to the heart.
Hepatic vessels supply the liver.
Hilum found on the concave margin of each kidney; site where the hepatic vessels & ureter join the kidney.
Horns section of spinal cord where gray matter is located.
Hypoglossal nerve tongue movement.
Iliac vessels supply the pelvis & lower limbs.
Internodes segments of myelin sheath between nodes.
Kidney filters toxin from blood & creates urine.
Limbic system establishes emotions & related drives.
Lymph fluid left in the tissues surrounding the capillaries.
Medulla oblongata relay sensory information.
Meninges layers that surround & protect the brain & spinal cord.
Microglia phagocytic cells that engulf & destroy microbes & cellular debris.
Micturition act of emptying the bladder.
Midbrain processes visual & auditory info & generates involuntary movements.
Nephron functional subunits of the kidney.
Neuroglia support & protect neurons.
Neurolemma sheath of schwann cells.
Neuron specialized for nerve impulse conduction.
Neurotransmitters chemicals that conduct nerve impulses across a synaptic gap.
Nissl bodies rough ER formed into large bodies inside a neuron.
Nodes of ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath.
Olfactory nerve sense of smell.
Oligodendrocytes form myelin sheath around CNS neurons.
Optic nerve sense of vision.
Parasympathetic nervous system controls processes that conserve energy.
Perineurium surrounds a group of nerve fibers.
Peripheral nervous system consists of all nerves extending from the brain & spinal cord.
Phrenic vessels supply the diaphragm.
Plasma dissolved proteins & water.
Plug platelets rush to the site of a cut and stick together, forming a barrier to prevent blood flowing out.
Pons links the cerebrum to the cerebellum.
Proximal convoluted tubules 1st segment of the renal tubule; descends into a renal pyramid in the medulla.
Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs.
Pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from lugs to heart.
Reabsorption movement of mostly water from the filtrate in the renal tubules back into the bloodstream.
Reflex automatic involuntary motor response to specific stimulus.
Renal columns extend between renal pyramids.
Renal pyramids 8 to 10 cone-shaped structures within the renal medulla whose tip are surrounded by the calyx.
Renal sinus internal space where the hilum opens.
Renal vessels supply the kidneys.
Satellite cells surround the neuron cell bodies in ganglia.
Schwann cells myelin sheath around a single axon in the PNS.
Secretion movement of excess ions & other molecules from blood stream into renal tubules.
Spinal cord relays info to and from the brain.
Splenic vessels supply the spleen
Sympathetic nervous system controls processes that expend energy.
Systolic pressure measure o arterial pressure when left ventricle contracts.
Tunica externa outermost layer that anchors blood vessels.
Tunica interna innermost layer dominated by elastic fibers.
Tunica media middle layer composed of smooth muscle; controls increasing & decreasing of vessel diameter.
Turbulence disruption o the normal flow pattern in which blood flows faster in the middle of veins that along the walls of veins.
Ureter carries urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder
Urethra drains urine from urinary bladder & transports it out of the body.
Urinary bladder temporarily stores urine
Vagus nerve autonomic control of viscera
Valves prevent backward flow of blood.
Varicose veins bulging of vein above valves from excess blood pressure.
Vascular resistance friction between blood vessels & blood as blood flows.
Vasoconstriction when an injury occurs that breaks a blood vessel, and the vessel narrows to slow down the blood from flowing out.
Vestibulocochlear nerve hearing & balance.
Viscosity refers to the thickness of a liquid.
White matter group of myelinated axons from many cell bodies.
Whole blood plasma & formed elements together.
Created by: brandon_kyle10



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