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CHAP 8-NervousSystem


2 Main Systems 1-Central nervous system 2-Peripheral Nervous system
Central nervous system(CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord
Perpheral Nervous system(PNS) all of the nerves
Autonomic Nervous system third divison of nervous system
Neurons is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling.
3 parts of nuerons 1-dendrites 2-cell body 3-axon
Dendrites branching projections that conducts impluses TO the cell body
Axon is the elongated projection that conducts impulses AWAY from the cell
Cell body contains cell nucleus
Classificaton of Neurons(classified according to function) 1-Sensory 2-Motor 3-Interneurons
Sensory(afferent) neurons conduct impulses TO the spinal cord and brain
Motor(efferent) neurons conduct impulses AWAY from the brain and spinal cord TO muscles and glands.
Internuerons(central or connecting) conduct impulses FROM the sensory nuerons to the motor nuerons
Glia(neuroglia) support cells by bringing the cells of the nervous tissue together structurally or functionally
Three types of Glial Cells of CNS 1-Astrocytes 2-microglia 3-oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes star-shaped cells that anchor small blood vessels to nuerons
Microglia small cells that move in the inflamed brain tissue carrying on phagocytosis
Oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths on the axons in the CNS
Schwann cells form myelin sheaths on the axons of the PNS
Nerve a bundle of peripheral axons
Tract is a bundle of the central axons
White matter refers to the tissue composed primarily of myelinated axons
Gray matter tissue composed primarily of cell bodies and UNmyelinated fibers
Nerve coverings are made of fibrous connective tissue
Endoneurium surrounds individual fibers within a nerve
Perineuronium surrounds a group of nerves, fascicle
Epineurium surrounds the entire nerve
reflex arc nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to effectors over the neurons pathways
Reflex conduction by a reflex arc results; contraction by a muscle or secretion by a gland
two-neuron arcs consist of sensory neurons that synapse in the spinal cord with motor neurons
three-neuron arcs consist of sensory neurons that synapse in the spinal cord with interneurons that synapse motor neurons
Nerve impulse (action potential) are the self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron membrane
polarization at rest, the neuron's membrane is slightly positive on the outside and negative on the inside(from slight excess of sodium ions on outside)
depolarization inward movement of sodium ions cause the membrane to become positive on the inside and negative on the outside
repolarization section of membrane quickly recovers from depolarization
Synapse the place where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another, the postsynaptic neuron
3 structures of the synapse 1-the synaptic knob 2-synaptic cleft 3-plasma membrane
Neurotransmitters bind specific receptor molecules in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron, opening ion channels and thereby stimulating impulse conduction by the membrane;chemicals by which neurons communicate
Neurotransmitters 1-acetylcholine 2-norepinephrine(5) 3-dopamine(5) 4-serotonin(5) 5-catecholamines 6-endorphins 7-enkephalins 8-nitric oxide (NO)
divisions of the brain 1-brainstem 2-cerebellum 3-diencephalon 4-cerebrum
3 parts of brainstem (in ascending order) 1-medulla oblongata 2-pons 3-midbrain
brainstem consists of white matter with bits of gray matter scattered through it;all parts of are two-way conduction paths
sensory tract conduct impulses to higher parts of the brain
Motor tract conduct from the higher parts of the brain to the spinal cord
Gray matter areas(in brain) function as important reflex centers
cerebellum is the second LARGEST part of the human brain; a gray matter outer layer, which is thin but highly folded, forming a large surface area for processing information
arbor vitae is the internal,treelike network of white matter tracts
cerebellum FUNCTIONS helps control muscle contractions to produce coordinated movements to maintain balance, move smoothly, and sustain posture
diencephalon 1-hypothalamus 2-thalamus 3-pineal gland
Hypothalamus consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk and gray matter
Hypothalamus CONTD acts as major center for controlling the autonomic nervous system;helps control the functioning of internal organs
Hypothalamus CONTD 2 helps control hormone secretion by the anterior and posterior pitutary glands;it indirectly helps control hormone secretion by most of the endocrine glands
hypothalamus contains center for controlling body temperature, appetite, wakefulness(sleep cycle), and pleasure
Thalamus a dumbbell shaped mass of gray matter extending toward each cerebral hemisphere;relays on impulses to cerebral cortex sensory areas;produces the emotions of (un)pleasantness associated with sensations
Pineal gland a small body resembling a pine nut BEHIND the thalamus;adjusts output of the time keeping hormone,melatonin, in response to changing levels of external light, like sunlight and moonlight
Cerebrum LARGEST part of the human brain;outer part is the cerebral cortex;made up of lobes; composed mainly of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons
cerebrum CONTD interior composed of mainly white matter ;tracts of the nerve fibers arranged in bundles
basal nuclei are the islands of gray matter that regulate autonomic movements and posture
Cerebrum functions include mental processes of ALL types, sensations, consciousness, memory,voluntary control of movements
Spinal cord consists of columns of white matter,composed of bundles of myelinated nerve fibers; form H-shaped core of the spinal cord
tracts bundles of axons
spinal cord interior composed of gray matter made up mainly of neuron dendrites and cell bodies
spinal cord tracts provide 2 way conduction paths, which both ascend and descend path
spinal cord functions primary control center for ALL spinal cord reflexes
sensory tracts conduct impulses TO the brain
Motor tracts conduct impulse FROM the brain
cranial nerves 12 pairs; attach to the undersurface of the brain;connect the brain with neck and structures in the thorax and abdomen
spinal nerves 31 pairs; contain dendrites of the sensory neurons and axons of motor neurons; conduct impulses necessary for sensations and voluntary movements
dermatome is the skin surface area supplied by a single cranial or spinal nerve
Autonomic Nervous system consists of motor neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to cardiac muscle,smooth muscle,, and glandular epithelial tissue;regulates INVOLUNTARY functions
Autonomic neurons are preganglionic autonomic neurons;conduct impulses from the spinal cord or the brainstem to an autonomic ganglion
postganglionic neurons conduct impulses from the autonomic ganglion to cardiac muscle,smooth muscle, and glandular epithelial tissue
autonomic or visceral effectors include tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses
division of ANS 1-sympathetic system 2-parasympathetic system
Autonomic conduction paths consists of two-neuron relays;preganglionic neurons from the CNS to the autonomic ganglia, synapses & postganglionic neurons from ganglia to the visceral effectors
Somatic motor neurons conduct all the way from the CNS to the somatic effectors with no intervening synapses
sympathetic nervous system includes dendrite and cell bodies of the sympathetic pregamglionic neurons,located in the gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord
SNS CONTD axons leave the spinal cord in the anterior roots of spinal nerves , extend to sympathetic ganglia and synapse with several postganglionic neurons whose axons extend to the spinal cord or autonomic nerves to terminate in visceral effectors
chain of sympathetic ganglia located in front of and each side of spinal column
SNS CONTD2 serves as the emergency or stress system, controlling visceral effectors during strenuous exercise and when strong emotions are triggered
fight or flight response group of changes induced by SNS
Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons have dendrites and cell bodies in the gray matter of the brainstem and the sacral segments of the spinal cord;terminate parasympathetic ganglia (located in head,thoracic,abdominal cavities) close to visceral effectors;
PSNS preganglionic neurons synapses with postgagnlionic to only one effector;dominates control of many visceral effectors under normal everyday conditions;counter balance sympathetic functions
Cholinergic fibers are the preganglionic axons of the parasympathetic and sypathetic systems and parasympathetic postganglionic axons, which release acetylcholine
adrenergic fibers are axons of the sympathetic postganglionic neurons, which release norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
ANS also functions in ways that maintain homeostasis;many visceral effectors are doubly innervated, means they receive fibers from pararsympathetic and sympathetic didvisins;influenced in opposite ways of the teo divisions
limbic system emotional brain; a collection of various small regions of the brain that act together to produce emotion and emotional response
meninges tough,fluid-containing membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord
dura mater tough outer layer that lines the vertebral canal
pia mater innermost membrane covering the spinal cord itself
arachnoid mater membrane between pia nad dura mater
cerebral ventricles small cavity, filled with CSF
cerebrospinal fluid CSF fluid that fills the subarachnoid spaces between pia mater and arachnoid in the brain and spinal cord
corpus callosum structure connecting the right and left halves of the cerebrum
gyri ridges of the cerebrum
sulci grooves of the cerebrum
node of ranvier indentations between adjacent schwann cells
neurilemma outside cell membrane of a schwann cell
olfactory nerve 1 of cranial nerves;conducts impulses from nose to brain;sense of smell
occipital lobe vision
auditory temporal lobe
Created by: TrAvIeSa262



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