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CHAP 6-Skeletal


skeletal system supports and gives shape to the body;protects internal organs, helps with movements,stores calcium
Calcium storage hormones regulate
calcitonin increases storage;parathyroid hormone reduces stores of calcium
Hematopoiesis the blood cell formation in red bone marrow
Four Major Bone Types(defines by the according to their shape) 1-Long(humerus) 2-Short(Carpals) 3-Flat(frontal) 4-Irregular(vertebrae)
Diaphysis (Shaft) is the hollow tube of hard compact bone
Medullary Cavity the hollow are inside diaphysis that contains yellow marrow
Epiphysis(ends of the bone) are the spongy that contains red bone marrow
Articular Cartilage covers the epiphyses and functions as a cushion
Periosteum is the strong membrane covering bone everywhere except at joint surfaces
Endosteum is the thin membrane lining the medullary cavity
Flat Bones have a spongy bone layer sandwiched between two compact bone layers
Diploe is the spongy bone layer of a flat bone
trabeculae spongy bone has a texture that results from needlelike threads of the bone, surrounded by a network of open spaces;found in epiphsis of bones contain red bone marrow
Osteon Structural unit in compact bone;
Concentric lamella calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers or rings
Ostocytes bone cells
Lacunae are small, spindle-shaped spaces each containing an osteocyte that is left behind by osteoblasts during the process of remodelling.
Canaliculi a small channel found in ossified bone
Chondrocyte cartilage cell
Cartilage Matrix is gel-like and lacks blood vessels
Early bone development before birth, consists of cartilage and fibrous structures
Osteoblasts FORM NEW BONE
Osteoclasts REABSORB BONE;are inactive osteoblasts
Endochondral ossification Cartilage models gradually and is replaced by the calcified bone matrix
TWO main divisions of skeleton 1-Axial 2-Appendicular
Axial Skeleton skull, spine, throax, hyoid bone
Appendicular Skeleton Upper extremites including shoulder girdle and lower extremites including hip girdle.
Male Skeleton Generally Larger than female; shape of pelvisis deep and narrow;pubic angle is narrower
Female Skeleton generally smaller than male; pelvis is shallow and broad; Pelvis inlet is generally wider; pubic bones is generally wider
Hyoid Bone anchors tongue; only bone not connected to another
Three kinds of joints 1-Synarthrosis joint 2-Amphiarthrosis 3-Diarthosis
Synarthrosis Joints is no movement;fibrous connective tisse grows between articulating bones; EX. sutures of the skull
Amphiarthrosis Joints slight movements; the cartilage connects articulating bones; EX. symphsis pubis
Diarthosis is a free movement joint;joint capsule and ligaments that hold adjoining bones together permit movement at joint
Synovial membrane is the soft tissue found between the articular capsule
Synovial fluid its yolk-like consistency;the principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement.
Bursae are fluid-filled pouches that absorb shock
Bursitis inflammationof a bursa
Functions of free movable joints 1-ball and socket 2-hinge 3-pivot 4-saddle 5-gliding 6-condyloid
Created by: TrAvIeSa262



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