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A&P pre-req/Quiz 1

Ch. 1-3

Define Anatomy study of internal & external structures of the body and the physical relationships among body parts. FORM. Describes structures of the body...what theyre made of, where theyre located, associated structures.
Define Physiology A study of how living organisms perform their vital functions. FUNCTION. Study of functions of anatomical structures and individual & cooperative functions
Integumentary System: Organs and Functions Skin, hair, sweat glands, nails...Protection from environment, body temp regulation, provides sensory info.
Skeletal System: Organs and Functions Bones, cartilages, ligaments, bone marrow...Supports and protects other tissues, stores calcium & other minerals, forms blood cells.
Muscular System: Organs and Functions Skeletal muscles (and associated tendons and aponeuroses/tendinous sheets)...Provides movement, protects and supports other tissues, generates heat that maintains body temp.
Nervous System: Organs and Functions Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs...directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates/moderates other organ system activities, provides & interprets sensory info about external conditions.
Endocrine System: Organs and Functions Pituitary, thyroid, & adrenal glands, pancreas, gonads, endocrine tissues...Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and NRG use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during dev.
Cardiovascular System: Organs and Functions Heart, blood, blood vessels...distributes blood cells, water, & dissolved materials (like nutrients, waste products, O2, CO2), distributes heat and assists in control of body temp.
Lymphatic System: Organs and Functions Spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils...defends against infection & disease, returns tissue fluids to bloodstream.
Urinary System: Organs and Functions Kidneys, Ureters, bladder, urethra...excretes waste products from blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine before elimination, regulates blood ion concentrations and pH.
Male Reproductive System: Organs and Functions Testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum...produces male sex cells (sperm) and hormones.
Female Reproductive System: Organs and Functions Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands.
Define homeostasis & homeostatic regulation Homeostasis=existence of a stable internal environment. Homeostatic regulation=ADJUSTMENT of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis.
Identify and Define the 2 types of homeostatic regulation autoregulation/intristic=cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts activities automatically in response to environmental change...Extrinsic regulation=activities of the nervous system or endocrine system adjust or control other systems simultaneously.
Negative vs. Positive Feedback Negative=body reacts in a way to undo stimulus affects; most common; ie sweating, shivering...Positive=body reacts in a way to amplify or grow stimulus effects; less common; ie blood clotting, child birth
Vasodilation vs. Vasoconstriction Dilation=blood vessels open up, moving closer to skin and releasing heat in warm environments...Constriction=blood vessels get smaller, move deeper under skin surface to retain heat in colder environments.
Anterior/ventral vs. Posterior/dorsal Anterior=front side...Posterior=back side [dorsal~dorsal fin on back]
Superior vs. (Caudal vs. cranial) Inferior Superior=comparatively more toward the head...(Caudal=closer to coccyx (tail bone), cranial=closer to head)...Inferior=comparatively more toward the feet
Medial vs. Lateral Medial=towards the body's longitudinal plane (nose-->navel-->genitals)...Lateral=Away from body's longitudinal plane.
Proximal vs. Distal Proximal=toward an attached base (ie shoulder, pelvis)...Distal=away from attached base (ie extremities).
Superficial vs. Deep Superficial=closer to body surface...Deep=away from body surface.
Coronal plane vs. Sagittal Plane vs. Transverse Plane Coronal=(Frontal section) splitting anterior and posterior... Sagittal=splitting left and right(mid-=equal left and right, para-=UNequal left and right)...Transverse=splitting top and bottom through naval.
Purpose of Body Cavities Provides protection, allows organ movement, linings prevent friction.
Thoracic Cavity Surrounded by chest wall and diaphragm. Split into mediastinum and left & right pleural cavities.
Pleural Cavity (Thoracic) 2 cavities that surround left and right lungs.
Mediastinum (Thoracic) Contains trachea, esophagus, and major vessels. Split into pericardial cavity.
Pericardial Cavity (Thoracic) Surrounds heart.
Abdominopelvic Cavity Inferior to thoracic cavity. Contains peritoneal-->abdominal+pelvic
Peritoneal Cavity (Abdominopelvic) Extends throughout abdominal cavity and into superior (upper) portion or pelvic cavity. Split into abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Abdominal Cavity (Abdominopelvic) Contains many digestive glands and organs.
Pelvic Cavity (Abdominopelvic) Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract.
Retroperitoneal Organs Organs that lie between the peritoneal lining and the muscular wall of the abdominal cavity. Include Acending Colon, Descending Colon, Rectum, Kidnets, Pancreas, and Duodenum. [AC/DC Rocker Kids Party Dicks]
Synthesis Reaction Anabolism, building up. [A comes before C, building comes before break down]. Forms chemical bonds (a + b -> ab). Dehydration synthesis (abc-H + de-OH-> abcde + H2O...water released). ie amino acids->protein
Decomposition Reaction Catabolism, breaking down. [CATs are too lazy to build or make stuff]. Breaks chemical bonds (ab -> a + b). Hydrolysis (abcde + H2O -> abc-H + de-OH). ie glycogen->glucose molecules
Exchange/Displacement Reaction Coupling of decomposition (ab->a + b) and synthesis (a + c->ac) --> (ab + c->ac + b). ie A-PP-P (ATP) + glucose -> A-PP (ADP) + glucose-P.
Reversible Reactions Occurs simultaneously in both directions(ab <-> a + b). At equilibrium the amts of chemicals dont change even though the reactions are still occurring. Reversible rxns seek equilibrium, balancing opposing rxn rates. adjust with new amt of reactants
Human Blood pH 7.35-7.45
Physiological pH 7.2-7.5
Buffers Weak acid/salt compounds that neutralize strong acids or strong bases. ie sodium bicarbonate (very important in humans in Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system).
Antacids Basic compounds that neutralizes acids and forms a salt.
Carboxyl group (-COOH) Acts as an acid, releasing H+ to become R-COO^-. ie fatty acids, amino acids
Amino group (-NH2) Can accept or release H+ depending on pH; can form bonds with other molecules. ie amino acids
Hydroxyl group (-OH) may link molecules through dehydration synthesis; hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and water molecules affect solubility. ie carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids
Phosphate group (-PO4) May link other molecules to form larger structures; may store energy in high-energy bonds. ie phospholipids, nucleic acids, high-energy compounds.
Carbohydrates contain C, H, and O, in a 1:2:1 ratio ie C6H12O6
Lipids Made mostly of C and H in the ratio 1:2. ie C2H4
Types of Lipids Fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerides, steroids, phospholipids and glycolipids
Fatty Acids Long chains of C and H with a carboxylic acid group (COOH) at one end. May be saturated (no covalent/double bonds) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds). Function as energy source.
Eicosanoids...Leukotrienes & Prostaglandins Derived from fatty acid called araciodonic acid, are chemical messengers coordinating local cellular activities...Leukotrienes=active in immune system, prostaglandins=local hormones, short-chain fatty acids.
Glycerides Fatty acid(s) attached to a glycerol molecule. Function as energy source, energy storage, insulation, and physical protection.
Definition and functions of Triglycerides (aka tricylglycerols or neutral fats) 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule...3 functions: energy source, insulation, protection.
Steroids...4 types 4 rings of C & H with assortment of functional groups...types: Cholesterol (component of plasma membranes), estrogen & testosterone (sex hormones), corticosteroids and calcitriol (metabolic regulation), bile salts (derived from steroids).
Phospholipids (O<) and Glycolipids (ooo<) Diglycerides attached to phosphate group (phospholipid) or sugar (glycolipid). Both with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. Are structural lipids, components of plasma (cell) membranes.
Proteins Chains of amino acids (~20), hooked by dehydration synthesis between amino group and carboxylic acid groups of diff amino acids (produces peptides). Are the most abundant and important organic molecules.
7 Functions of protein...types of Protein Support (structural proteins), movement (contractile proteins), transport (transport/carrier proteins), buffering/pH regulation, metabolic regulation (enzymes), coordination and control (hormones), defense (antibodies).
Cofactors...Coenzymes Cofactors=ion or molecule that binds to enzyme before substrates can bind...Coenzyme=nonprotein organic cofactors.
Enzymes...Isozymes Catalyze intra or extracellular rxns;proteins that lower activation NRG, amount stays constant. Are limited by saturation, regulated by other cellular chemicals, temp & pH dependent for optimal function. Isozymes=2 enzymes that can catalyze the same rxn
Fibrous proteins vs. globular proteins Fibrous=structural sheets or strands (ie keratin or collagen)...Globular=soluble spheres with active functions based on shape (ie myoglobin and hemoglobin).
Glycoproteins Large protein + small carb. ie enzymes, antibodies, hormones, mucus production. Promote viscosity (ie mucins absorb water to provide lubrication of digestive & reproductive organ surfaces)
Proteoglycans Large polysaccharides (carb) + polypeptides (protein).
Purines vs. Pyrimidines Purines=AG [PURe As Gold]...Pyrimidines=C TU [CUT the PY]
Adenine-Thymine bonds vs. Guanine-Cytosine bonds A-T with 2 H-bonds G-C with 3 H-bonds [G and C are curvy like 3]
Cell/Plasma Membrane Composition 98% composed of lipids-->75% are phospholipids (amphipathic/polar-nonpolar molecules), 20% are cholesterol, 5% are glycolipids (extracellular glycocalyx). Head=polar, hydrophilic. Tails=nonpolar, fatty acid, hydrophobic.
Membrane Protein Types Anchoring, recognition, enzymes, receptor, carrier, channel (leak and gated).
Anchoring Proteins Attach cell membranes to one another or internal or external structures.
Recognition Proteins Identify cell and prevent attack by immune system.
Enzymes Catalyze intracellular or extracellular reactions.
Receptor Proteins Bind to specific ligands in extracellular fluid
Carrier Proteins Moves solutes across membrane; may or may not require ATP.
Leak Channels vs. Gated Channels Leak=permit continuous movement of water and ions (ie Na+, K+, etc.) Gated=close or open to regulate ion movement
Membrane Carbohydrates Functions Lubrication & Protection, Anchoring & Locomotion, Specificity & Binding (blood typing).
Blood Typing+Plasma Antibodies Type A=type B antibodies Type B=type A antibodies Type O=both A and B antibodies Type AB=neither A nor B antibodies
Cytoplasm composition Intracellular fluid (cytosol) and organelles (membraneous and nonmembraneous)
NONmembraneous Organelles list (NM) Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrosome, cilia, ribosomes, proteasomes.
Cytoskeleton: Composition and Function NM. Proteins organized in microfilaments or microtubules...Strength and support; movement of cellular structures and materials.
Microvilli: Composition and Function NM. Membrane extensions containing microfilaments...Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials.
Centrosome: Composition and Function NM. Cytoplasm containing 2 centrioles at right angles; each centriole composed of 9 microtubule triplets...essential for chromosome movement during cell division (centrioles form spindle apparatus); organization of microtubules in cytoskeleton.
Cilia: Composition and Function NM. Membrane extensions containing microtubule pairs...movement of materials over cell surface by beating rhythmically.
Ribosomes: Composition and Function NM. RNA+Proteins; fixed ribosomes bound to rough ER, free ribosomes scattered in cytoplasm...Protein synthesis
Proteasomes: Composition and Function NM. Hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at ends...breakdown and recycling of damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins.
Membraneous Organelles list (M) Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, peroxisome, nucleus.
Mitochondria: Composition and Function M. Double membrane, w/ inner membrane folds (cristae) enclosing important metabolic enzymes...produce 95% of ATP required by cell. (Endosymbiotic theory, cellular respiration)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): Composition and Function M. Network of membraneous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm...synthesis of secretory products; intracellular storage and transport. Consists of Rough and Smooth ER.
Rough ER vs. Smooth ER M. ROUGH=Has ribosomes bound to membranes...modification and packaging of newly synthesized proteins (secondary & tertiary structure). SMOOTH=Lacks attached ribosomes...lipid and carbohydrate synthesis, storage, detoxification
Golgi Apparatus: Composition and FuDNAnction M. Stacks of flattened membranes (cisternae) containing chambers...Storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes.
Lysosome: Composition and Function M. Vesicles containing digestive enzymes...intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens [lysosome=lysol=cleans up cell]. Primary=inactiveEnzymes, secondary=activeEnzymes.
Peroxisome: Composition and Function M. Vesicles containing degradative enzymes...Catabolism (breakdown) of fats and other organic compounds; neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process. [Hydrogen Peroxide, peroxisomes...neutralizes toxic byproducts]
Nucleus: Composition and Function M. Nucleoplasm containing nucleotides, enzymes, nucleoproteins, and chromatin; surrounded by double membrane (nuclear envelope)...Control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic info; control of protein synthesis.
Nucleolus: Composition and Function (Within nucleus) Dense region in nucleoplasm containing DNA and RNA...Site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits.
DNA...Gene...Genetic Code DNA=instructions for every protein in the body...Gene=DNA instructions for one protein...Genetic Code=chemical language of DNA instructions (A,T,C,G triplets -> 1 amino acid)
Diffusion vs. Osmosis Diffusion=Net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration...Osmosis=movement of WATER from lower solute concentration+osmotic pressure to a region of higher S.C.+O.P. across a semi-permeable membrane.
Define Osmotic Pressure (high vs. low) The force that opposes the movement of water. Higher solute=higher opposition to the movement of water.
Osmolarity & Tonicity Osmolarity=measure of the concentration of solute in the extracellular solution...Tonicity=measure of water pressure
Carrier-Mediated/Specific Transport Definition and Types Movement through specific membrane proteins...Facilitated diffusion, (primary) active transport, secondary active transport.
Facilitated Diffusion: Process, Rate-Affecting Factors, and Substances involved. Carrier proteins PASSIVELY transport solutes across a membrane DOWN/WITH a concentration gradient...gradient size, temp, and carrier protein availability...Glucose and amino acids.
Primary Active Transport: Process, Rate-Affecting Factors, and Substances involved. Carrier proteins ACTIVELY transport solutes across a membrane often AGAINST a concentration gradient...availability of carrier, substrates, and ATP...Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++; other solutes by specialized cells.
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump Example of Primary Active Transport. Uses 1 ATP to move 3Na+ ions out of cell and 2K+ ions into the cell.
Secondary Active Transport: Process, Rate-Affecting Factors, and Substances involved. Carrier proteins passively transport 2 solutes, with one (normally Na+) moving down its concentration gradient; the cell later uses ATP to eject the Na+...Availability of carrier, substrates, and ATP...Glucose and Amino acids; iodide.
Glucose-sodium Symporter Example of secondary active transport. Transports Glucose molecule into cell through protein with Na+ ion (3Na+ later pumped out of cell through Sodium-Potassium Pump).
Endocytosis: Process, Rate-Affecting Factors, and Substances involved. Creation of membraneous vesicles containing fluid (Pinocytosis/"cell drinking") or solid material (Phagocytosis/"cell eating")...Stimulus&mechanics incompletely understood; requires ATP...fluids, nutrients;debris, pathogens (specialized cells).
Exocytosis: Process, Rate-Affecting Factors, and Substances involved. Fusion of vesicles containing fluids and/or solids with the plasma membrane...stimulus and mechanics incompletely understood; requires ATP...Fluids, debris.
Interphase G1 Phase, S Phase, and G2 Phase. Between 2 cell divisions.
G1 Phase Normal cell functions plus cell growth, duplication of organelles, protein synthesis. >8 hours
S Phase DNA replication, synthesis of histones. 6-8 hours
G2 Phase Protein synthesis. 2-5 hours
Mitosis Division of parent cell/nucleus into to equal daughter cells w/ all of parent cell chromosomes. 1-3 hours
Steps of Mitosis Prophase (formation of chromosomes, spindle fiber preparation), Metaphase (lining up of chromosomes on spindle fibers to prepare for separation), Anaphase (splitting of chromosomes), Telophase (cleavage of nucleus into 2 w/ full chromosome sets).
Cytokinesis Completion of mitosis; splitting of cell cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells.
Causes of increased cell division internal factors (M-phase promoting factor/MPF), extracellular chemical factors (growth factors). Faulty repressor genes.
Causes of decreased cell division Repressor genes, worn out telomeres (terminal DNA segments).
Steps of cancer Abnormal cell -> primary tumor -> Metastasis -> Secondary tumor
Tumor (neoplasm) Enlarged mass of cells; abnormal cell growth and division
Benign Tumor vs. Malignant tumor Benign=contained in location, not life threatening... Malignant=spreads into surrounding tissues through blood stream (invasion), starts new tumors (metastasis).
Cell Differentiation Specialization of cells to form specific tissues by turning off all genes not needed by that cell (in other words, depends on which genes are active and inactive).
Created by: 725585579