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CHAP 5-Integumentary

UHS

QuestionAnswer
Integumentary system the skin, and its accessory structures- hair,nail,skin glands
Integument another name for skin; principle organ of the integumentary system
Skin one of a group of anatomically simple but functionally important sheetlike structures called membranes
classification of body membranes 1-epithelial membrane 2-Connective tissue membranes
epithelial membranes composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of specialized connective tissue
3 types of Epithelial tissue 1-Cutaneous membrane 2-Serous membrane 3-Mucous membranes
Cutaneous Membrane the primary organ of the system;MOST important and certainly one of the largest and MOST visible organs; superficial layer of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of supportive connective tissue
Serous Membrane Composed of two distant layers of tissue; thin layer of simple squamous epithelium and the connective tissue forms a very thin,gluelike basement membrane;secretes a thin,watery fluid that helps REDUCE friction
types of Serous membranes 1-parietal portion 2-visceral portion
Partial Portion lines the wall of a body cavity; much like wallpaper covers the walls of a room
Visceral Portion Covers the surface of organs found in body cavities
Pleura have perietal and visceral layers line the walls of the thoracic cavity and cover the lungs
Peritoneum has perietal and visceral layers line walls of the abdominal cavity
Plurisy a very painful pathological condition characterized by inflammation of the serous membranes(pleura)that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs
Perionitis used to describe inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity;sometimes a serious complication of an infected appendix
Mucous Membrane epithelial membranes containing both an epithelial cell and a fibrous or connective tissue layer;line the body surfaces opening directly to the exterior ex. lining of respiratory, digestive, urinary, & reproductive tracts;
Mucus a think, slimy material secreted by epithelial cells of most mucous membranes;keeps membranes moist and soft
Lamina Propia fibrous connective tissue underlying the epithelium in the mucous membranes
Mucocutaneous junction used to describe the transitional area that serves as a point of 'fusion' where skin and mucous membranes meet;ex. eyelids,lips,nasal openings,vulva, & anus
Connective Tissue Membranes DO NOT contain epithelial component
Synovial membranes lining the joints capsules that surround and attach the ends of articulating bones in movable joints
Synovial fluid thick, colorless lubricating fluid secreted by membranes that are smooth and slick
Bursae small, cushion-like sacs found between many moving body parts lined by synovial membranes
Sebaceous glands oil-producing gland found in the skin
Structure of the Skin 1-Epidermis 2-Dermis
Epidermis the OUTERMOST layer of the skin;relatively thin sheet of stratified squamous epithelium
Dermis the DEEPER&THICKER of the two layers of the skin;thicker than the epidermis and is made of largely of connective tissue
Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) thick layer of loose connective tissue and fat supports the layers of the skin
Stratum germinativum the innermost layer of cells that continually reproduce, pushing new cells toward the surface
Keratin tough,waterproof protein that fill the cell as it approaches the surface and eventually flake off
Stratum corneum tough outer layer of the epidermis
Melanin brown pigment is produced by specialized cells in the deepest layer is responsible for the production of this pigment
Blisters caused by the breakdown of the union between cells or primary layers of the skin
Dermal Papillae upper papillary layer of the dermis is characterized by parallel rows of tiny bumps
Dermis Contains nerve endings, muscle fibers, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, and many blood vessels
Hair an accessory structure of the skin
Lanugo soft hair of a fetus and the newborn
Hair follicle epidermal tubelike structure that is required for hair growth
Papilla hair growth begins here
Shaft the visible part of the hair
Arrector pili smooth muscle that produces goose bumps and causes hair to stand up straight
Receptor of the skin accessory structure of the skin;speccialized nerve endings that make it possible for the skin to act as a sense organ
Meissner(tectile) Corpuscle allows the skin to be capable of detecting light touch
Pacini(lamellar) corpuscle allows the detection of pressure
Free nerve endings respond to pain
Krause end bulbs (bulboid corpuscles) detect low-frequency vibration
Nails produced by epidermal cells over the terminal ends of the fingers and toes
Nail body visible part of nail
Nail root lies in a groove and is hidden by the cuticle
lunula crescent-shaped area nearest the root
nailbed may change color with a change in blood flow
two types of skin glands sudoriferous (sweat)gland(2types) -eccrine -apocrine sebaceous gland
Sudoriferous (sweat) gland secrete sweat; 2 types eccrine and apocrine
eccrine sweat glands MOST numerous,important, widespread of the sweat glands;produce perspiration, flows out through pores on the skin's surface;assists body in heat regulation
apocrine sweat glands found primarily in the axilia and around the genitalia;secrete thicker secretion than the eccrine gland; produces odor
Sebaceous glands secrete oil(sebum) for the hair and skin;increases during adolescence;regulated by sex hormones
three common types of skin 1-cell carcinoma 2-basal cell carcinoma 3-malignant melanoma
Cell Carcinoma a common, slow-growing type of skin cancer;lesions begin as painless, hard, raised nodules and will metastasize
basal cell carcinoma MOST common typr of skin cancer;originates in cells at the base of the epidermis;lesions begin as small raised areas that erode in the center,bleed,and then crust over;less likely to metastasize
Malignant melanoma the MOST serious form of skin cancer;may develop from benign,pigmented moles
ABCD rule self-examination of early detection of malignant melanoma
Functions of the Skin 1-Protection 2-Temperature regulation 3-Sense organ activity 4-Excretion 5-Synthesis of vitamin D
Rule of nines one of the MOST common used methods of determining the extent of burn injury;body is divided into 11 areas of 9%each(1%for genitals)
Classification of burns first-degree burn second-degree burn third-degree burn
First-degree burn cause minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin'NO blistering occurs;tissue destruction is minimal
Second-degree burn involves the the deep epidermal layers;cause injury to the upper layers of the dermis; burns damage sweat gland,hair follicles,and sebaceous glands;blisters, severe pain, generalized swelling,&fluid loss
Third-degree burn COMPLETE destruction of the epidermis and dermis; tissue death extends below the primary skin layers;involve underlying muscles and even the bone;lesions are insensitive to pain immediately after injury because of destruction of nerve ending
Created by: TrAvIeSa262