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CHAP 3-Cells&Tissue


Human cells_____in size, but are ALL _________. Human cells VARY in size, but are ALL MICROSCOPIC.
Cells contain Cytoplasm,plasm membrane, and nucleus
Cytoplasm a substance found only in cells; all-cell substance from nucleus to plasma membrane
Plasma membrane thin two-layered membrane of phospholipids and embedded with proteins;forms outer boundary of the cell; is selectively permeable
Cytoskeleton is the internal framework of the cell;made of microfilaments and microtubules;provide support & movement of the cell & organelles
Ribosomes made of two, tiny subunits of mostly rRNA (ribosomal RNA);manufacture enzymes and other proteins;"protein factories"
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a network of connecting sacs and canals that carry substances through the cytoplasm.
Smooth ER synthesizes chemicals and makes new membranes
Rough ER collects, folds, and transports proteins made by ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus is a group of flattened sacs near the nucleus that collect chemicals into vesicles that move from the smooth ER outward to the plasma membrane
Mitochondria composed of the inner and outer membranous sacs; involved with the energy releasing chemical reactions called cellular respiration;"power plants" of cells;one contains one DNA molecule
Lysosomes membrane-enclosed packets containing digestive enzymes that have a protective function;eat microbes
Centrosome includes microtubule, which is the organizing region of the cytoskeleton near the nucleus
Centrioles paired organelles that lie at right angles to each other with the centrosome;function in moving chromosomes during cell reproduction
Microvilli short extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface area;produce slight movements that enhance absorption by the cell
Cilia hairlike extensions with inner microtubules found on free or exposed surfaces of all cells;sensory function;capable of moving together in a wavelike fashion to propel mucus across a surface
Flagella single projections that act as tails of sperm cells; longer than cilia
Nucleus controls cells because it contains most of the genetic code also called genome
Components of the nucleus nuclear envelope,nucleoplasm,nucleolus,and chromatin granules
There are how many chromosomes that contain the DNA, which contains the genetic code? 46 nuclear chromosomes
IS there a relationship between cell structure and function? YES
Passive transport DO NOT require added energy and result in movement DOWN a concentration gradient;Diffusion, Osmosis,Dialysis and Filtraton
Diffusion occurs when substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space, the particles moving from HIGH to LOW concentration
Osmosis the diffusion of WATER when solutes CANNOT cross the membrane
Dialysis the diffusion of small particles
Filtration the movement of water and solutes caused by hydrostatic pressure on one side of the a membrane
Active transport processes only occur in living cells; movement between substances is up the concentration gradient; REQUIRES energy from ATP;ex. ion pumps
Ion pump a protein complex in the cell membrane; Ex. sodium-potassium pump, calcium pump.
Phagocytosis "cell eating"; engulfs large particles in a vesicle as a protective mechanism;often used to destroy bacteria or debris from tissue damage;active transport
Pinocytosis "cell drinking"; engulfs fluids or dissolved substances into cells;active transport
DNA large molecule;shaped like SPIRAL STAIRCASE;deoxyribose,and phosphate units compose sides of molecule; is contains in the nucleus
Complementary base pairing base pairings are always the same; BUT the sequence of the base pairs differs in different DNA molecules
Genes a specific sequence of base pairs within DNA molecules;dictate formation of enzymes and other proteins by ribosomes;heredity determinants
Protein sythesis occurs in the cytoplasm, thus genetic information must pass from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
Transcription occurs when double-stranded DNA separates to form messenger RNA (mRNA);duplicates a particular gene;mRNA molecules pass from nucleus to the cytoplasm;direct protein synthesis into ribosomes and ER
Translation involves the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm by ribosomes;requires the use of information contained in mRNA;
Codon is a series of three nucleotide bases that acts as a code for specific amino acid
Cell Division a reproduction of the cell involving division of the nucleus and cytoplasm; mitosis;two daughter cells
Interphase period when the cell is NOT actively dividing; not it say that cell is inactive
Metaphase Spindle fibers attach to each chromatid;chromosomes align across the center of the cell
Prophase Chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes; chromatids become attached at the centrosome;spindle fibers appear;nucleolus and nuclear envelop disappear
Anaphase centrosomes break apart;chromosomes move away from the center of the cell; cleavage furrow appears
Telophase nuclear envelope and both nuclei appear;cytoplasm & organelles divide equally;process of cell divison is completed; two daughter cells
Four main tissues 1-Epithelial 2-Connective 3-Muscle 4-Nervous
Epithelial covers body and line the body tissue; made up of cells packed closely together with little matrix;classified by the shape of the cells
Shapes of cells (Epithelial) 1-squamous(flat & scalelike) 2-cubidoal (cube-shaped) 3-columnar (higher than they are wide) 4-transtitional (varying shapes that can stretch)
Arrangement of Cells 1-simple (a single layer of cells of the same shape) 2-Stratified (many layers of cells; named for the shape of cells in the outer layer)
Simple Squamous Epithelium single layer of scalelike cells adapted for transport
Stratified squamous epithelium several layers of closely packed cells specializing in protection
Simple columnar epithelium composed of tall, column-like cells arranged in a single layer;contains mucus producing goblet cells that are specialized for secretion
Stratified transitional epithelium has up to 10 layers of roughly cuboidal-shaped cells that distort to squamous shape when stretched; ex.urinary bladder
Pseudostratified epithelium a single layer of distorted columnar cells; each cell touches the basementmembrane
Simple cuboidal epithelium a single layer of cubelike cells that are often specialized for secretory activity;may secrete into duct, directly in blood and on the body surface
Connective tissue most abundant and wildly distributed tissue in the body with many different types, appearances, and functions
Types of Connective tissues 1-Areolar 2-Adipose (fat) 3-Fibrous 4-Bone 5-Cartilage 6-Blood 7-Hematopoietic
Areolar tissue loose connective tissue tha has the fibrous glue, fascia, which holds organs together;collagenous and elastic fibers are the most common
Adipose (Fat)tissue is the way the body can store lipids and play a role in the metabolism regulation;brown fat produces heat
Reticular Tissue is a delicate net of collagen fibers, as in bone marrow
Dense fibrous tissue consists of bundles of strong collagen fibers;ex. a tendon
Bone tissue a hard, calcified matrix that functions as support and protection
Cartilage tissue a matrix with the consistency of gristlelike gel; ex. chondrocyte
Blood tissue matrix is fluid;functions are transportation and protection
Hematopoietic is the bloodlike connective tissue found in red marrow cavities of the bones and in organs such as the spleen, tonsils & lymph nodes; responsible for the formation of blood cells & lymphatic system cells; important in our defense against disease
Muscle tissue are the movement specialist of the body
3 kinds of Muscle Tissue 1-Skeletal 2-Cardiac 3-Smooth
Skeletal Muscle attaches to bones; also called striated or voluntary
Cardiac Muscle also called striated involuntary muscle; composes the heart wall
Smooth Muscle Also called nonstriated,visceral or involuntary. has no cross striations; found in blood vessels and other tube-shaped organs
Nerve tissue to provide rapid communication between body structures and control body functions
two kinds of nervous tissue cells 1- Neurons 2- Glia
Neurons are the conduction cells; ALL have a cell body, and two types of processes: the axon(one) and the dendrite(many)
Axon carries the nerve impulse AWAY from the from the cell body
Dendrite carries the nerve impulse TOWARD the cell body
Glia(neuroglia) are supportive and connecting cells
Created by: TrAvIeSa262