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Cells & Tissues

Test 1 Material (Part 1 of 2)

what creates 75-80% of cells weight water
what are the macronutrients found in a cell hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, & phosphours
what are the micronutrients found in a cell iron, zinc, magnesium, cobolt, manganese
what are the four types of bonds covalent (polar & nonpolar), ionic (salts), hydrogen bonds (stong in quantities, planar), van der walls (weak)
what is hydrophobic fear of water
what is hydrophilic love of water
what is amphipathic pocess both a fear & love for water
name the properties of water hydrogen bonds increase surface area, water has a high heat capacity, dissolves variety of solutes
what is the macromolecule of this monomer - amino acids proteins
what is the monomer of this macromolecule - polysacchardies sugars
what macromolecule is made up of glycerol and fatty acids lipids
what monomer makes up nucleic acids nucleotides
what type of assembly requires the use of a chaparone assisted self assembly
which proteins tend to be smaller in size with regards in assembly strict self assembly
how many amino acids are there 20
what are the categories of amino acids hydrophobic (non-polar), hydrophilic (polar), acidic hydrophilic (polar), basic hydrophilic (polor)
how many amino acids are in each category 9 non-polar, 6 polar, 3 basic, 2 acidic
what type of bond is formed between amino acids a peptide bond
with regards to sterioismers, which form is useful (L or R) L form only
what are chains of amino acids called polypeptides
synthesis of proteins is called translation
what are the two types of protein chains monomeric (smaller) & multimeric (larger)
what are the 4 levels of organization in a protein primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary
in protein organization which level is only the sequence primary
in protein organization which level of organization involves interaction with itself tertiary
what level of organization do proteins create alpha-helix & beta-pleated sheets secondary
what level of organization involves several polypeptides quarternary
what are the 8 charcteristics of a protein motor, transport, receptor, signal, gene expression, storage, structral, and enzymes
what do lipids do store energy
name the types of lipids (7) fatty acids, triglycerides, phospolipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, terpenes, and steroids
what are triglycerides considered true fats
triglycerides are formed from what three fatty acids and a glycerol
what fatty acids contain double bonds unsaturated
what fatty acids contain only single bonds saturated
are fats liquid or solid at room temperature solid
what (5) lipids are found throughout membranes triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and steroids
what type of lipid contains a phosphate group and two fatty acid groups phospholipids
what two types of lipids are found primarly in nervous tissue sphingolipids and glycolipids
what type of lipid contains rings in its structure steroids
what is the most common type of steroid cholestrol
important hormones such as estrogen, endogens, and corisols are derived from what type of this cholestrol
what lipid is derived from isoprene terpenes
what do terpenes synethesis carotenoids, coenzyme q, and vit. a
what is the main function of polysaccrides storage
what are examples of monosaccrides ketosugars, aldosugars, hexose sugars, & pentose sugars
what are examples of disaccrides two monosaccrides attached
what type of bond is formed between disaccrides glycoacidic bonds
what must a nucelotide contain phosphate group, nitrogenous base, & a pentose sugar
synthesis of DNA always occurs how 5' --> 3'
how are nucelic acids used in cells express genitic information, store genitic material, contain energy
what type of bond is formed between nucelotides phosphodiester bonds
what is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells prokaryotic lack a nucleus and are considered bacterial, eukaryotic are large and they have a nucleus along with other organelles
what does the plasma membrane do seperates cytoplasm from extracellular environment
how thick is the plasma membrane 7-10 nm thick
list the structrual features of a plasma membrane cotrols passage of material using a phospholipid bi-layer, contains membrane proteins, extrinsic proteins, & glycoproteins
what do glycoprotein act as on the outside of the plasma membrane receptors
where is energy produced in a cell the mitochondria
what is unique about the nucleus and mitochondria only organelles to have a double membrane
cristae are found inside the mitrochondria, what is their function to increase surface area
what organelle are considered garbage disposables lysosomes, they breakdown macromolecules
how are lysosomes charcterized they contain acid phosphatase
discribe the envionment lisosomes function in lisosomes function only in acidic environments
what organelle resembles stacks of pancakes the golgi complex
what is the main function of the golgi complex to pack and deliver proteins
how do proteins leave the golgi complex they leave by vesicles
what organelle is the golgi complex a continuation of rough endoplasmic reticulum
what are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum smooth and rough
what does RER synthesize membrane proteins, lysomal proteins, and secretory proteins
what does SER sythesize steroids, lipids, and detox some drugs
Where is the repository of genitic information nucleus
what are nuclear pores purpose regulate passage of material between the nucleus and cytoplasm
where is DNA found nucleus
what is heterchromatin dark patches where DNA is wrapped tightly (not expressed)
what is euchromatin white patches where DNA is loose (being expressed)
where are ribosomes sythesized nucleolus
what is considered the "vault" of a cell nucleus
what does the nucleus ensure the replication of DNA is correct
list the major oranelles in an eukaryotic cell (8) nucelus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondira, cytoskeleton, lysosomes, ribosomes, peroximeres
what organelle are known as microbodies peroximeres
what type of tissue are peroximeres normally found kidney and liver cells
peroximeres break down what hydrogen peroxide and long chain fatty acids
where is protein synthesized RER
what provides framework and shape to the cell cytoskeleton
internally what does the cytoskeleton move chromatids for cell divison
externally how does the cytoskeleton provide movement cillia and flagella
what anchors organelles in the cell cytoskeleton
name the (3) types of cytoskeleton microtubules, intermediate fillaments, microfillaments
explain microtubules generated @ MTOC, form cillia & flagella, help position and moves organelles, and are composed of tublin
what type of cytoskeleton are composed of actin micofillaments
describe microfillaments used in muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cleavage during cell division
what type of cytoskeleton is fibrous intermediate fillaments
intermediate filliments are stable and provide what mechanical strength
what are the (4) types of tissue connective, muscle, epithelial, and nervous
how are epithelial cells arragnged in sheets generally
what do epithelial cells cover covers blood vescles and line cavities
what type of tissue is avascular, contains little extracellular matrix between each cell, and contain a basement membrane epithelial
what are the functions of the epithelial cells selective barrier, protection, scretion, absorption, transcellular, transport, sensation
what are the types of layers simple, straisfied, psudostraisfied
in regards to epithelial cells, the shape of the cells are squamous, cuboidal, columnar,
what is the shape of the nucleus in a simple cuboidal cell round and centrally located
what is the shape of the nucleus in columnar cells elongated nucleus and cell
what is cosidered a special type of simple epithelial tissue pseudostratified which contain a single layer of cells with different heights
give an example of stratified keratinized epithelial tissue skin (no nucleus present, waterproof, scale like tissue)
give an example of stratified nonkeratinized epithelial tissue walls of the vagina (contain nucleus)
what are special about transitional tissue they're usually called dome cells, can expand and contract as needed
what are exocrine cells they stay connected to the surface by ducts (sweat glands)
what are endocrine cells do not stay attached to the surface (hormones)
Created by: bawasinger