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Chapter 7 - Terms

Scientific Revolution (HOLY POOP I DONT KNOW THIS)

QuestionAnswer
Montaigne an example of 16th century mindset; "What do I know? Nothing" truth is relative; best display of skepticism; doubting frame of mind - nothing is possible for humans to truely know
Francis Bacon Englishman; skeptic; rejected scholastics, truth is something we find after long investigation; founder of the inductive theory
Rene Descartes 'I think, therefore I am'; believed in the deductive theory; didnt apply math
Instauratio Magna written by Bacon; call for a new start in science and civilization; only 2 volumnes were published
Novum Organum one volumne of Instauratio Magna (Bacon); introduced the inductive method; if you're going to get the real, accurate truth, you must use inductive method
inductive method the founding of knowledge on observation and experience; let patterns of thought be shaped by actual, observed facts; start from scratch, not where someone else left off
deductive method drawing implications from what we already know; like starting from where someone else left off;
empiricism philosophy founded on knowledge from observation and experience; prevents you from changing facts into preconceived beliefs
The Advancement of Learning also by Bacon; stressed that you must test your conclusions (scientific method); put idea to test, see if it works and if its useful
The New Atlantis Bacon; maybe science can help us - individual and society lives better; challenging premise of early mod western history - we CAN change society and it is not doomed: poop on you Machiavelli
cogito ergo sum " i think, therefore I am" - Descartes
Cartesian Dualism two kids of reality: thinking substance (cant explain): mind, spirit, subjective experience; extended substance (can explain): everything outside of the mind, so objective; can reduce world to an equation, but not certain things (love of a song, beauty)
16th century is the age of ____ relativism - doubt that there can be any certain knowledge; everything is custom and so different from place to place
17th century is the age of ______ Scientific Revolution - there is a true, reliable method of knowledge; doubt past conclusions, start fresh, and draw concludions based on observations (inductive, empircism)
18th century is the age of ______ the Englishtenment - apply science to the workings of human society; just like there are laws of science, there must be laws of politics and economics (system)
how is the view of war changed post 1648? war is a game and something to be avoided
Cartesian and Baconian philosophical model: purpose of science in charge of nature; position to use nature to your benefit
Vesalius published a book in 1543 renewing and modernizing the study of anatomy, challenging the findings of the 2nd century philosopher Galen
William Harvey Published a book in 1628 establishing the continual circulation of blood through arteriesand veins
Leeuwenhoek using the microscope, studied the intricacies of the human body and published drawings in the 17th century
Ptolemy Greek philosopher on whom most of the conception of the universe was based before the scientific revolution; geocentric
Copernicus advanced the heliocentric theory in the 16th century
Brahe 16th century scientist who challenged Copernicus;
Kepler advanced the three laws of planetary motion; discovered that heliocentric worked if motion was in elipticals
Galileo astronomer whose use of the telescope to examine the cosmos and whose experiments concerning gravity revolutionized science
Newton English scientist whose theory of universal gravitation led to institutionalized science and revolutionary scientific advancements by the 18th century
Denis Papin rudimentary steam engine in 1681
James Watt inventer of steam engine we know today
Pascal struggled with the gap growing between natural science and Christianity
Ptolemaic the belief that the universe was created of domes with Earth being the center; fit in with Christian beliefs
crystalline sphere transparent spheres around the Earth; outside of it all was heaven
empyream beyond the sphere of stars; the heavens
geocentric the Ptolemaic theory that the Earth was the center of the universe
heliocentric "sun centered"; Capernicus was first to bring theory to light
Newtonian System the human mind had discovered the world's laws;
Pierre Bayle spokesman for the skepticism of the late 17th century, holding that all beliefs are relative; believed that what is called truth is often mere opinion
Edmond Hailey first man to predict the return of a comet
Jean Mabillon French Benedictine monk who established the science of paleography
Usher studied human past and the Bible and concluded that the date of the creation of the world was 4004 BC
Richard Simon French priest who wrote A Critical History of the Old Testament which questioned the validity of the Bible
Baruch Spinoza Dutch thinker of the 17th century who argued against all forms of religious and supernatural beliefs; the ultimate skeptic
John Locke foremost English philospher of the 17th century who argued his environmental philosophy; believed that you and society could change for the better
cake of custom realization of different cultures was unsettling and broke this term; became harder to believed 100% rightness to one's ways
Historical and Critical Dictionary published by Bayle; conveyed that what is truth is often mere opinion, most people are gullible, and that many believed truths are rather silly; no opinion is worth burning your neighbor for
paleography the study of deciphering, reading, dating, and authentication of manuscripts
chronology finding an age for the world and finding a common denominator in various worldy dating systems
Julian Calendar the order Julain calendar was followed by the Orthodoz and Protestant countries
Gregorian Calendar the corrected calendar used by Catholic countries and graducally accpeted throughout the world
Critical History of the Old Testament published by Simon; argued that the OT was based off of faulty documents of unknown origin, contained obvious contridictions, and had copied errors
Essay Concerning the Human Understanding published by Locke; truth is derived from experience; nature vs nuture (basically the nuture arguement); anti-Machiovellian
"natural law" there is somehow, a law that distinguished right from wrong; right is "natural" not human intervention; what is right is right for everyone, and vise versa for wrong;
"positive law" actual laws that are enforced by courts; maybe unjust when looked at through natural law
Hugo Grotius attempted to creat a "Law of Nations" in book Law of War and Peasce
Samuel Pufendorf attempted to create a "law of nations" in book Law of Nature and of Nations
Thomas Hobbes justified (philosophically) absolutism; sided with king over Parliament; concluded that humans had no capacity for self government
John Locke philosophically justified constitutionalism; believed that gov was a sort of a contract; moderate religion - good and people could learn from experience and improve; blank slate belief
Law of War and Peace published by Grotius
Law of Nature and of Nations published by Pufendorf
Leviathan published by Hobbes; moster mentioned in Bible; purely natural arguements free from religious influence
Two Treatsies of Government book by Locke; people could improve and lead an educated/enlightened life; favored self-government; people must be reasonable
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