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Unit 4 Modern War_AB

Triple Alliance Bismarck believed that to isolate France, divert it from Europe & keep it embroiled with Britain, he looked on French colonial expansion. In 1879 he formed a military alliance with Austria-Hungary, to which Italy joined in 1882. Lasted until WWI.
Triple Entente By 1907 England, France & Russia were acting together. The older Triple Alliance faced a newer Triple Entente, the latter somewhat the looser, since the British refused to make any formal military commitments.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand The heir to the Habsburg Empire. He was assassinated in June 28, 1914 by a young Bosnian revolutionary and a member of the Serbian secret society called "Union or Death". Assassinated in the streets of Saravejo, the Bosnian capital in the Austrian Empire.
First World War Fought by Germany, Austria-Hungary, The Ottoman Empire & Bulgaria (Central Powers) against Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Belgium, Romania, US (entered in 1917), British Commonwealth countries & Italy. Spark: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.
The Schlieffen Plan Also known as the German War Plan. The idea was first to defeat France by the rapid wheeling motion of a tremendous army through Belgium & then to turn at more leisure against Russia, whose great size & less-developed railways made deployment much slower.
The Battle of Marne Fought from September 5-12. It changed the whole character of the war. The Germans were obliged to retreat. The hope of felling France at a single blow was ended.
The Battle of Verdun Lasted for almost ten months, engaged about 2 million soldiers & became a legend of determined French resistance ("they shall not pass"). The Germans abandoned the attack because they sustained almost as many casualties as the French - 330,000 to 350,000.
The Battle of Somme Lasted from July to October. It cost the Germans about 500,000 men, the British 400,000 & the French 200,000. Nothing of any value had been gained. First time British used the tank, but had no effect on the battle.
The Zimmerman Telegram Sent in 1917 to German minister in Mexico City. Telegram instructed the minister to say that if US went to war with Germany, the Germans would form an alliance with Mexico, & if possible, Japan, enabling Mexico to get back its "lost territories".
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Signed on March 3, 1918 by the Bolsheviks. They venemently objected the treaty, but were obliged to sign it. By this treaty, they acknowledged the "independence" or at least the loss to Russia, of Poland, the Ukraine, Finland & the Baltic Provinces.
The Armistice The German High Command notified its government that it could not win the war. The German foreign office made peace overtures to President Wilson. It was arranged on November 11, 1918 & firing ceased on the Western front. Ended the actual fighting in war.
Woodrow Wilson The 28th president of the United States - from 1913 to 1921. He had full control of American entry into WWI & his second term centered on WWI & subsequent peace treaty negotiations in Paris.
Freud & Spengler Sigmund Freud emphasized the raw power of human aggression; called it death instinct. Most famous postwar book Civilization & its Discontents. Different kind of pessimism appeared in the influential work of Oswald Spengler, German philosopher-historian.
The Treaty of Versailles Competed in three months; one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. The Germans, when presented with the completed document in May 1919, they refused to sign it.
The "Cadets" The rising business & professional classes, reinforced by enterprising emerged in 1905 as the Constitutional Democratic Party. Many of those who were active in the provincial zemstovs also became Constitutional Democrats.
The intelligentsia They were the other traditional source of revolutionary disturbance. They held a violent contempt for the Russian Empire & yearned for a catastrophic overthrow of the tsardom.
The October Manifesto Released by the tsar & his adivsers. It intended to divide the opposition; they succeeded. The Constitutional Democrats allowed themselves to hope that social problems could henceforth be dealt with parliamentary methods.
The Red Terror Broke out during the civil wars; in Russia. It was a campaign of mass arrests, executions & atrocities conducted by the Bolshevik government. Officially announced on September 2, 1918 & ended in October 1918.
First 5-year Plan Listed the economic goals to be achieved. It was administered by an agency called the Gosplan. Within the frame of general policy set by the party, the Gosplan determined how much of every article the country should produce, wages & goods prices.
The Third International The first congress in 1919 was somewhat haphazard. The Third or Communist, International - the Comintern - was in part a spontaneous rallying of Marxism from all countries who accepted the Bolshevik Revolution.
Lenin's Twenty-One Points The second congress of the international in 1920, endorsed a program of twenty-one points. These included the requirements that each national party must call itself communist, repudiate "reformist" socialism & propogandize labor unions.
Benito Mussolini He was an agitator; led a movement called Fascism, ended parliamentary government & founded his Fascist regime. Became first of dictators of postwar Europe outside the Soviet Union. Fascist Italy was the chief exception in a rising tide of democracy.
The Spartacists Led by Karl Liebknect & Rosa Luxemburg in January 1919. Attempted to bring about a German proletarian revolution. Lenin & the Bolsheviks aided them. Social Democratic Provisional Government crushed their uprising.
The Dawes Plan Instituted in 1924 in Germany to assure the flow of reparations. The French evacuated the Ruhr, the reparations payments were cut down & arrangements were made for the German Republic to borrow abroad.
The Locarno Treaties 1925, the European powers signed a number of treaties in Switzerland. These marked the highest point in international goodwill reached between the two world wars. Germany signed a treaty with France & Belgium. France signed treaties with Poland & Czech.
Quotas A.K.A: Quantitative restrictions - were adopted by many nations. By this system a government said in effect not merely that goods brought into the country must pay a high tariff duty but that above all a certain amount no goods could be brought in at all.
The "March on Rome" Took place on October 1922. The Blackshirts mobilized for a threatened coup & began to converge from various directions on the capital. The liberal-democratic coalition cabinet saw that the Blackshirts were serving a useful national purpose.
Adolf Hitler Born in Austria 1889. Did little before the war; never was a socialist, but fell into a restless & racist type of radicalism. Disliked many things, but mainly Jews. He then became the dictator of Germany & the Nazi Army. Caused the Holocaust.
The "rape of Nanjing" Japanese occupation of China in 1937 caused many atrocities & violent mass murders. Japanese troops murdered some 250,000 people, raped thousands of Chinese women & burned corpses on the streets. Gov't officials later denied this event ever happening.
Francisco Franco Leader of a group of military men leading an insurrection against the Republican government. On March 1939, he established an authoritarian, fascist-type rule over Spain.
Holocaust The mass genocide of Jews led by Adolf Hitler. Over 6 million Jews were killed, along with millions of other Poles, Russians, other Slavic peoples, Gypsies & others.
Second World War Sparked by Hitler's invasion of Poland & Austria-Hungary. At all the while, Japan was invading almost all of Asia. The United States entered WWII after Japanese troops bombed Pearl Harbor. First war to have used nuclear weapons.
Created by: abii2595