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francoism eskema I

QuestionAnswer
SPAIN DURING FRANCOISM (1939-1975) IDEOLOGICAL SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FOUNDATIONS OF FRANCOISM
•Concentration of political power in Franco's hands
• Anticommunism: the outbreak of the cold war between the USA and the USSR led Franco's regime to defend anticommunism, in order to be accepted by the capitalist countries.
• Anti-parliamentary and opposed to political freedom
• National-Catholicism: the Church controlled social life and education. A strict moral Catholic in public and in private was imposed.
• Defense of the Unity of Spain: Opposed to any political autonomy and Castilian as the only language allowed (Basque and Catalan banned)
• Traditionalism their idea of Spain was based in the historical past (The Empire)
• Militarism Military relevance (parades, uniforms, anthem, flag...)
- Fascists features: Symbols and uniforms
Worship of the leader (Caudillo) Violence as a political weapon
Social grounds of the Dictatorship
• Land owning and financial oligarchy recover their social hegemony
• Rural middle Classes of the North and Castile (Catholic influence)
- Urban middle classes and workers against against
O At the beginning: systematic repression, misery and demoralization
O After the 60's economic development kept the middle classes quiet
The Regime's Political Grounds
• All political parties are banned
(brutal repression). Sole Party: FET de las JONS.
• Within the regime, under-the Caudillo, different political families:
O "Falangistas" • Franco was the only leader
- Control of social life: "Frente de Juventudes", "Seccion Femenina"
- Pre-eminent during the Axis , left aside after the Ally victory (WWII)
O Military - Socially relevant but strictly under Franco control
• Closer collaborators were from the military (Carrero Blanco).
O Catholics • Most of the Civil Servants came from catholic circles (Opus Dei)
• Importance of the Church in everyday life
O Monarchists - Carlists were left aside from the beginning, when they joined the Falangists
- Carlists were left aside from the beginning, when they joined the Falangists
- Spain was a reign, but Don Juan (son of Alfonso XIII) was kept away.
• Franco kept an equilibrium among the families to guarantee his total power.
POLITICAL EVOLUTION AND INTERNATIONAL SITUATION 1939-1959 The institutionalization of the regime
The dictator established a law system of his own: "Leyes Organicas"
"Fuero del Trabajo", 1938 Only Syndicate the phalanx (fascist model)
"Ley Constitutiva of the Cortes", 1942 Parliament elected by indirect suffrage of the Corporaciones; family, council, syndicate. Franco's control
a "Fuero de los Espanoles", 1945. Rights declaration (catholic and traditionalist). lt was not a real declaration, just a farce.
O "Ley del Referendum Nacional", 1945 to ratify the dictator's decisions.
O "Ley de Sucesion" ,1946. Spain is a reign but Franco decides who
• The Hunger years o Rationing of staple food: Black Market ("Estraperlo")
» o General Corruption: Contacts with the bureaucrats "Recomendacion"
• Repression o "Ley de Responsabilidades Politicas", 1939: Loads of political prisoners (Concentration Camps, Executions, General Terror)
Foreign Policy • Alliance with the Axis Berlin-Roma—Tokyo:
1940 Interview Franco—Hitler: Spain did not enter the war. The country was exhausted after the civil war and Franco's pretensions over the French African colonies.
But he sent the "Division AzuI" to fight against the USSR
• After 1942: He tried to reconcile himself with the Allies, (resignation of Serrano Suñer) by giving more relevance to the Catholics (Pope's help).
In 1946 the UN vetoed Spain as an axis ally: economic and political isolation.
• End of the Isolation: The "Cold War" turned Franco (a hard line anti-communist) into a US ally.
1953, USA agreement: American military bases (Torrejon de Ardoz, Zaragoza, Moron and Rota) in exchange of American economic aid.
• First protests: Workers and University students
• 1957 Opus Dei in the government (technocrats). 1959 Economic Reform.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION 1939-1959 The post—war autarchy
• Demographically and economically ruined (Hunger)
• Economic answer: Autarchy and State intervention (Italian fascist model)
—Agricultural Control (harvest and price)
— Foreign Trade control
—Setting up of the "Instituto Nacional de Industria" (INI) in 1941
Economic faiIure: —Economy recession —Collapse of the agricultural and industrial production —BIack market -Corruption -Axis Allies in the WWII
50's: the end of the autarchy and the Economic reform (Opus Dei technocrats)
¤ Partial Liberalization of prices and trade; end of the rationing in 1952
Created by: prettyreckless