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AP1 Final Exam

Anatomy/Physiology 1 (BIOL2121K)

QuestionAnswer
Distinguish between positive and negative feedback systems. Give examples. - Negative: causes variable to change in an opposite direction to the original change (Ex: Glucose control; Body Temperature; antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - Positive: Original stimuli is enhanced or increased (Ex: Blood Clot, oxytocin during birth
What are the organizational levels of life? Atoms, cells, molecules, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
What are the major organs and main characteristics and functions of each major body system?
What region of the body does "cervical" refer to? neck
What region of the body does "acromial" refer to? shoulder/scapula
What region of the body does "axillary" refer to? armpit
What region of the body does "brachial" refer to? arm
What region of the body does "carpal" refer to? hand
What region of the body does "pollex" refer to? thumb
What region of the body does "patellar" refer to? knee cap
What region of the body does "hallux" refer to? big toe
What region of the body does "fibular" refer to? calf bone
What region of the body does "femoral" refer to? upper leg
What region of the body does "inguinal" refer to? groin
What region of the body does "coxal" refer to? hip
What region of the body does "thoracic" refer to? chest
What region of the body does "sterna" refer to? breast bone
What region of the body does "buccal" refer to? cheek
What region of the body does "orbital" refer to? eye
What region of the body does "calcaneal" refer to? heel
What region of the body does "plantar" refer to? sole of foot
What region of the body does "sacral" refer to? base of spine / pelvic area
What region of the body does "gluteal" refer to? butt
What region of the body does "olecranal" refer to? elbow
What region of the body does "scapular" refer to? shoulder
What region of the body does "occipital" refer to? back of head
What region of the body does "otic" refer to? ear
Give examples of organs found within the dorsal and ventral body cavity. - dorsal: cranial and spinal, protects the nervous system - ventral: internal organs
Define viscera. internal organs
Distinguish between the thoracic, pleural and pericardial cavities. thoracic: superior part; pleural and pericardial cavities; abdominal and pelvic – inferior parts (abdominopelvic)
Name organs found in the abdominopelvic cavity. It consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. It contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines, urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs.
Identify the four major elements found in the body. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
Define atomic number. Use the atomic number to identify the number of protons and electrons in an atom. Carbon has an atomic number of 6. This means all carbon atoms have 6 protons and 6 electrons
Distinguish between a solvent and solute in a solution. Substance in the greatest amount is the solvent; least amount is the solute. Water is solvent “aqueous” solution. Water dissolves gases, liquids and solids (Ex: Blood Plasma)
Give the locations of metals, nonmetals on the periodic chart. - Metals on the left and center - Nonmetals to the right
What types of ions are formed by metals and nonmetals. Metal ions are called cations; nonmetal ions are called anions.
What are the general characteristics of ionic bonds? Give examples. formed via electrostatic attraction, metals (cations) transfer electrons to Nonmetal (anions), electronegativity is greater for nonmetals; greater pull for the electrons, form Crystalline solids (Salts: NaCl; MgCl2 (Electrolytes) are examples)
What are the general characteristics of covalent bonds? Give examples. similar electronegativity, nonmetals share electrons with other nonmetals, forms molecules which are the smallest units of a covalent compound which do not break down into individual atoms (ex: 2 hydrogen atoms = compound H2)
Give examples of compounds that contain hydrogen bonds. - Weak bond that is easily broken but easily repaired. - DNA: holds double strand together - Proteins have hydrogen bonding
Explain how hydrogen bonds are formed. Attraction between dipoles (negative and positive charges due to slight electronegativity differences between nonmetals) Oxygen has a slightly greater electronegativity than does hydrogen in water. But electrons are not transferred as in ionic bonds.
The pH scale is based on which ion concentration? hydrogen
Give some characteristics of acids. - Releases H+ (hydrogen ions) in solution - “Proton donor” – when immersed in solution, hydrogen ions are released. - Lowers pH - Sour taste
Give some characteristics of bases. - Releases OH- in solution - “Proton acceptors” - Accept hydrogen ions and tie them up - Raises pH - Slippery; bitter taste
What are the numerical values of the pH scale for acids, bases and neutral substances? 0-6 acids; 7 neutral; 8-14 base or alkaline 0-2 strong acid; 3-6 weak acid 8-10 weak base; 11-14 strong base
What reaction breaks down larger organic substances into smaller ones via the insertion of water molecules? hydrolysis
What reaction helps to build larger compounds from smaller ones (glucose to polysaccharides)? dehydration
What are the functions of carbohydrates? 1. Energy – 4 kcal/g 2. Cell membrane – 1-2% of cell mass 3. Cell recognition – carbohydrates are found on the surface of a plasma membrane. They can recognize other cells that are alike or different from themselves.
Identify the three 6-C monosaccharides. glucose, fructose and galactose
Identify the two 5-carbon monosaccharides. ribose and deoxyribose
Give examples of polysaccharides starches, cellulose, and glycogen
Explain the significance of glycogen to the human body, where it is stored , etc. glucose stored in the liver; if released my increase blood glucose levels
What are the functions of lipids? 1. Energy – 9 kcal/g 2. Makes up the major part of Cell membrane – “phospholipids” 3. Steroids – forms steroid based hormones 4. Fat-soluble vitamins (Vit. A vision, Vit. D produced on skin, normal bone growth, Vit. E wound heal, Vit. K blood clot)
What are lipids made up of? Fatty acid chains, which are nonpolar and hydrophobic
What is the structure of a fatty acid (hydrocarbon chain)?
What is the function of a phospholipid? makes up the major part of the cell membrane
What is the function of triglycerides? adipose tissue, insulation of organs
What is the function of cholesterol? - Is the pre-cursor to all other steroids - Cholesterol modified will result in testosterone, estrogen and progesterone - Important in keeping the cell membrane fluid
How does cholesterol differ from other lipids structurally? The carbon skeleton of steroids is bent to form four fused rings that do not contain fatty acids.
What is the the structure and functions of proteins? They function as catalysts, they transport and store other molecules such as oxygen, they provide mechanical support and immune protection, they generate movement, they transmit nerve impulses, and they control growth and differentiation.
What is the monomer of a protein? amino acid
What type of bond is formed between two amino acids? peptide
What causes protein denaturation? high temperatures, etc.
What is the function of an biological enzyme? biological enzymes/catalysts has the ability to increase rate of chemical reaction
What are two nucleic acids? RNA and DNA
What is the significance of both RNA & DNA biologically? RNA is the intermediate molecule between DNA and protein. DNA supplies the information necessary for cells to reproduce.
What are the base pairing rules between bases in DNA and RNA? DNA base pairings are A-T, T-A, C-G and G-C. RNA has 3 out of 4 (G, C and A) of these bases, but does not have T (thymine), but has Uracil instead.
What do organic compounds contain? carbon
What is the function of the following organelle: mitochondria? ATP synthesis, kidney and liver cells have high amounts due to the nature of these organs, double membrane structure with inner membrane called cristae where ATP is produced, contain their own DNA and are able to reproduce themselves
What is the function of the following organelle: lysosomes? Breakdown waste that accumulates in the cell. Old bacteria, cell parts that have worn out, destroy ingested bacteria, viruses, toxins, breaks down bone to release calcium ions into the blood, contain hydrolytic enzymes called acid hydrolases
What is the function of the following organelle: ER? Rough: ribosomes on surface. Modification of proteins, produces all proteins exported from cell. Smooth ER: synthesize cholesterol and steroid-based sex hormones; drug detox; breaks down glycogen in liver to raise glucose; lipid metabolism
What is the function of the following organelle: ribosomes? Protein synthesis occurs on the surface of ribosomes; ribosomes may be attached to ER or floating free in cytoplasm; free ribosomes make soluble proteins used inside cell or for import; attached ribosomes make proteins for import/export (hormones, etc.)
What is the function of the following organelle: golgi apparatus? Mod. of proteins – export/import. Package proteins for release; travel from ER to Golgi via transport vesicles which enter front door or cis face and leave via backdoor called trans face; moves lipids and transmembrane proteins to plasma membrane
What is the function of the following organelle: centrioles? Contained within the centrosome an area where mitotic spindles are formed; two pairs at right angles; form the bases of cilia and flagella found in other cells
What is the function of the following organelle: peroxisomes? detox of alcohol & drugs; found in liver & kidney
Why is the plasma membrane referred to as the fluid mosaic model? selectively permeable
What are some examples of substances that may pass freely through the membrane and other substances that are blocked? Pass freely - water, dissolved mineral salts, amino acids, glucose fatty acids and glycerol, oxygen, carbon dioxide Blocked - Na+ and K+
What are the polar and nonpolar regions of the plasma membrane? Heads are polar – face water Tails are nonpolar – turns away from water
Distinguish between osmosis and diffusion. Osmosis moves water: through lipid bilayer passively or through aquaporins; water movement influenced by solute concentration; membrane permeable to water but not certain solutes. Diffusion is same as osmosis except involves movement of particles.
What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? Give examples. Facilitated Diffusion: glucose, amino acids and ions are transported passively through membrane with help from transport proteins (Transmembrane Proteins); these molecules are not able to pass straight through the phospholipid bilayer
Distinguish between passive and active transport. Give examples. Passive Transport - no energy required, high concentration to low concentration (gradients) Active Transport: energy input required; ATP is required to drive active transport processes; low concentration gradient to high concentration gradient
What is exocytosis? Moving substances out of the cell; similar process to endocytosis but in the opposite direction; stomach cells produce HCl for digestion; secretory cells release enzymes; hormones; mucus; serve cells release neurotransmitters
What is endocytosis? Moving substances into the cell like bulk solids, most macromolecules, and large quantities of fluids; once substance enters cell it is covered by a part of phospholipid bilayer. This is called a vesicle which is coated with proteins.
What is phagocytosis? A white blood cell engulfs a bacteria or foreign particle via endocytosis. It is eventually delivered to the lysosome to be broken down and disposed of.
What is cytosol? What is it made of? What is its purpose? colloid mixture and true solution which is mostly water with dissolved solutes (proteins, salts and sugars), Inclusions – chemicals, stored nutrients, glycogen granules in liver and muscles, lipids in adipose, melanin granules
What is the function of the nucleus? contains 46 chromosomes
What is found in the nucleus? chromosomes, DNA, nucleolus, etc.
What is chromatin? When it condenses what does it make? Chromosome arms (chromatids), DNA is condensed chromatin
What are the major events of the cell cycle? Interphase (longest), Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What is the significance of the ‘S’ phase during interphase? DNA replication
What is cytokinesis? Completes the division of a cell; actin fibers forms a contractile ring and cytoplasm pinches off. This is called a cleavage furrow. Actually begins in late anaphase and continues through to the end of telophase.
What is the purpose of mitosis? It produces the cells of the body. When they split they produce identical cells with a complete set of DNA.
In what phase do chromosomes appear in mitosis? prophase
What are the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue? Characteristics: Covers and lines outer body or skin; walls of organs; body cavities; Functions: Protection, Absorption, Filtration, Excretion and Secretion
Identify the organs or places in the body where simple squamous epithelium is found. 1. Air sacs – lungs (Alveoli) 2. Kidneys glomeruli 3. Blood vessels; lymph vessels 4. Serosae (body cavity)
Identify the organs or places in the body where simple cuboidal epithelium is found. Kidney Tubules
Identify the organs or places in the body where simple columnar epithelium is found. Ciliated: Uterine tubes, small bronchi; Non-Ciliated: Digestive tract; gall bladder
Identify the organs or places in the body where transitional epithelium is found. Bladder
Identify the organs or places in the body where pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is found. Non-ciliated: sperm ducts; Ciliated: Trachea; upper Respiratory tract
What are the general characteristics of connective tissue? Less cellular, nonliving part (epithelium is almost all cellular, while connective tissue has fewer cells and more matrix); vascular (exception is cartilage) (Connective tissue has own blood supply unlike epithelial tissue); innervated
All connective tissue types come from what type of cell? embryonic stem cell – mesenchyme
What are the four types of connective tissue? connective tissue proper (loose CT, dense regular/irregular CT); cartilage (hyaline and elastic); osseous tissue; blood
How does connective tissue differ from epithelial tissue? connective tissue has own blood supply unlike epithelial tissue; has matrix composed of ‘ground substance’ and ‘fibers’
What is the cell type found in CT proper? fibroblasts
What is the cell type found in cartilage? chondrocytes
What is the cell type found in osseous tissue? osteocytes
What is the cell type found in blood? Erythrocytes, Leukocytes; Platelets
Where is hyaline connective tissue found and what is its function? Covers ends of long bones, articulating bones or joints, tip of the nose, connects ribs to the sternum, supports trachea, forms the template for the skeleton during embryonic development
Where is dense irregular connective tissue found and what is its function? Found in the dermis; joint capsules; capsules covering the kidneys, bones, muscles
Where is osseous tissue found and what is its function? Support and protection for the body & bone marrow produces blood cells; compact bone (found on the outer parts of long bones) and spongy bone (in the heads of long bones)
Where is fibrocartilage found and what is its function? thick rows of collagen and chondrocytes in between; very compressible and resists tension; found in the intervertebral discs; menisci of the knee
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue? Smooth, cardiac and skeletal
Where is smooth muscle tissue found and what is its function? Hollow organs/“Visceral organs”, involuntary muscle movement
Where is cardiac muscle tissue found and what is its function? heart;
Where is skeletal muscle tissue found and what is its function? found throughout your whole body; cells are joined together, multinucleated; functionally act as one
What are the basic parts of a neuron? dendrites, cell body, axon hillock, axon, axon terminals
What are the general characteristics and functions of nervous cells? Long lifespan (100+ years; amitotic; lose ability to divide; high metabolic rate (need great supplies of oxygen and glucose); large and complex; excitable neurons (muscle and nerve cells)
What is the function of melanocytes? Produce melanin – gives skin its color and provides protection from UV light
What is the function of keratinocytes? Produce keratin
What are the general components and pH of sweat? 99% water with some salts, vitamin C, antibodies, dermicidin, waste like urea; pH 4-6
What is another name for sweat glands? merocrine glands
What is another name for sebaceous glands? holocrine glands
What is the difference between a merocrine and holocrine gland? merocrine glands secrete products by exocytosis; holocrine glands secretion is an eruption
What are the general characteristics of basal cell carcinoma? Face and exposed body parts; least malignant, but most common; 80% of all skin cancers; slow growing; surgically removed 99% of time; does not spread; occurs in the Stratum basale layer
What are the general characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma? head and hands are most common; keratinocytes of stratum spinosum is where it originates; rapid growth; will metastasize if not removed; good recovery if removed
What are the general characteristics of melanoma? most dangerous; highly metastatic; resistant to chemo; 2-3% of all skin cancers in the US; can pop up where ever there is a pigment; 1/3rd result from moles; If lesion is greater than 4 mm thick, chances for survival are low
What would be classified as a long bone? humerus, femur
What would be classified as a short bone? wrist, ankle
What would be classified as a sesamoid bone? Special type of short bone formed in tendons; patella
What would be classified as a flat bone? Sternum; Scapulae
What would be classified as an irregular bone? Vertebrae; Pelvic bones
What is the chemical composition of bones? Reservoir for minerals; mostly Ca and P ions
What is an osteoid made up of? ground substance and collagen fibers
What are the organic and inorganic parts of bone? Organic parts: collagen; Inorganic hydroxyapatites: calcium phosphate salts
Distinguish between compact and spongy bone. Compact: found on the outer parts of bones, structural units are called osteons or haversian systems; Spongy: does not look solid (spines, etc.) called trabeculae, bone marrow, heads of long bones and between flat bones
What are the parts of a long bone? diaphysis (long axis), epiphyses (end of long bones), epiphyseal line
What are the locations and functions of red marrow? Hips , ribs, sternum, vertebrae, epiphysis of long bones; key element of the lymphatic system
Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification of bone. Intramembranous ossification: when bone forms from fibrous tissue Endochondral ossification: when bone forms from hyaline cartilage
What are the role of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in bone remodeling? Osteoclast cells erode the calcified cartilage matrix and osteoblast cells secrete new matrix forming trabeculae
What is the role of PTH in controlling blood calcium levels? Bone resorption and kidneys
What is the role of calcitonin in controlling blood calcium levels? It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
The internal acoustic meatus is passageway for which cranial nerve? VIII
What are the # of Ribs (numbers of, true vs. false, and floating)?
What are the parts of the sternum? jugular notch, manubrium, sternal angle, sternal body, xiphoid process
Give examples of the types of fibrous joints. sutures (skull), syndesmoses (distal tibiofibular joint), gomphoses (teeth & alveloar processes)
Created by: 1405030737