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The Enlightenment

History Final STUDY GUIDE

QuestionAnswer
Glorious Revolution in England 1688 parliament decides to overthrow/exile King James II. New protestant King and Queen: William of Orange and Mary Stuart limited monarchy. practical power shifted from monarch to parliament.James II was despotic& tried to re-establish roman-catholic rel
Glorious Revolution continued James II foolishly thought of Catholicizing the whole nation.This struggle between the King and the Parliament ended in victory/power/freedom for the people. Modern rules were framed according to which the King ruled by will of the people
Declaration of Rights 1689 similar to our bill of rights declared that the crown had legally passed to william and Mary. Handed a great deal of power to parliament (start of a constitutional monarchy). forbade catholic rule
John Locke-ideal form of government = democracy 1632-1704 philosophe, not a noble, from a wealthy lawyer family, puritan: democracy, religious toleration, education
Essay Concerning Human Understanding-promoted the idea of education for all people since intelligence was not limited to only the wealth and prominent citizens 1693-how humans gain knowledge/develop reason, challenges descartes idea that only things you can be certain of is reason. you cant accept sensory info as real=knowledge. gives implications for equal ability to learn through education
Tabula Rasa mental Blank slate. all humans born equally without knowledge. Everyone able to gain knowledge through senses/experience and the use of reason to make sense of info
Two Treaties of Civil Government 1690-1) governments exist to protect the natural rights of the people [life, liberty and property] and 2) if the government is not protecting those rights, the PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO REVOLT! Gov't not based on god's will...it's created by human reason
Natural rights: man is basically good Social Contract state of nature exists before gov't: people have natural rights and use their reason to form social agreement (contract) bc it's in their best interest to give up some rights for others (property, judicial system)
Louis XIV-the Sun king 1643-1715-wanted absolute monarchy, despotism, French king, strong sense of cencorship (system of spies, no free speech, reading mail, no bad talk)
Divine right the idea that God chose him to rule
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 1685-took away the allowance of the protestant religion to be legal and made it only legal to be Catholic=bad international public relations, EUROPE SAW A TYRANT
Intendants royal representatives of the king sent out to the provinces to help collect taxes more efficiently. they developed far greater power loyalty.large standing army maintained=centralized power
Philosophes=critical thinkers writers, teachers dedicated to solving the real problems of the world-improve. used same reasoning method to discover natural laws of society.many were deists. also against the church's control over people
French Salons wealthy intellectual elites began to gather regularly(often hosted by high-society women) and complain about gov't. spread discussion, balance btw. public and private ideas,discuss enlightenment ideals
Montesquieu educated noble 1689-1755 political philosophe= division of state and separation of powers, researched diff. cultures=part of parliament of Bourdeax & active in academy (developments&promote intellectual spread)
Montesquieu & Tournelle Parliament's criminal division. he heard out legal accusations. supervised prisons, and carried out certain punishments, such as torture. =used reason in actions
Persian Letters-controversial and successful 1721 published anonymously but was an open secret. satire of french society through outsider's view, criticizes absolute rule. Usbek-despotic ruler w/ power. Roxana women with no power and an ornament.
Spirit of the Laws 1748-banned to the Papal Index. criticizes the church.comparing diff. govts for diff. people.(changing):division of state and separation of powers. three forms of govt:republic (virtue), Monarchy (honor)Despotism (fear)virtue defined diff. for each
The Social Contract-1762 Rousseau govt and its subjects enter into an implicit contract when govt takes power.In exchange for ceding some freedoms to the govt and laws, people expect/demand mutualprotection.govt authority lies only in consent pop.soveriegnty governs/general will
separation of power power in government should be divided into separate branches—typically legislative, judicial, and executive—in order to ensure that no one branch of a governing body can gain too much authority.
Salonniere=well connected, high society, connections to publishing networks women as powerful influence (not common), very important role as regulators..to pursue form of education, women did not have huge egos=better moderators
Madame Geoffrin-1750-1777 Earlier salon dinner=whole afternoon discussions,specific day of the week, more philosophical crowd, patron of the arts & men of letters
English Coffeehouses/Cafes-1652-1750s public, not invitation only, middle/working class,heavily male, fewer rules for discussion=fights...French Revolution ideas put into practice
Voltaire (deist)-exiled to England from France, thrown into bastille first for Regent-Orelans satire 1694-1778:Freedom of speech, the press, religion.“I disagree with what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it” US Constitution
Letters on the English 1733-admires England's relative freedom of press, constitutional monarchy balanced power, religious toleration, admired Locke & Newton
Emilie du Chatelet (1706-49) voltaire's mistress, female philosopher w/ intellectual power helped to write the Elements of Newton's Philosophy w. Voltaire=popularize newtons ideas
The Calas Affair by Voltaire-1760s Toulouse, France=protestant family accused of murdering their Catholic con. Father killed, daughters/mother exiled (lack of rationality/system of justice/empiricism)voltaire intervened=strengthened the movement for criminal law reform/religious tolerance
Madame de Pompadour/Voltaire's Treatise on Tolerance 1763 lives in versailles, Voltaire takes campaign to Royal Court to defend Jean Calas=restores honor of family. treatise leads to ideas of no persecution over religion, and justice system revision/reform
Francoise de Graffigny 1695-1758 from provincial novel family female author, lives in Paris, runs own Salon, famous play rare, financially independent, parents dead, legal separation husband
Letters of a Peruvian Women historical background proves female credibility and intellect 1747-travel narratives used to critique French society, Zilia, education needs reform, women's role in society
Garcilago Inca de la Vega (1536-1616) Relativism->still well-ordered society 1/2 spanish european, 1/2 Incan main source of how graffigny knows of Incan culture: through Historia general de peru (1609) deserve respect, role in gov't, Spanish conquest disaster, ideal govt. speak both languages, historical intro=peru not well-trave
French Provincial Academies sponsored by local govts. attempt to bring enlight. discussions to French provinces. open to both men/women, public essay contests, middle class/nobility/clergy double literacy rate in France
The Encyclopedia (1751-1772) Denis Diderot head up the process w/ D'Alembert embodiment of enlightenment ambitions. goal:to collect human knowledge and make it accessible to everyone. 32 volumes final. not objective, knowledge=power, put on papal index france. rel. authoritie-hypocrites, system of human knowl.=memori,reason,imagin
7 Years War-backdrop of enlightenment=consciousness of the worldwide webs of trade, diplomacy, migration, and information exchange 1756-1763 France vs. England for possession of the american/asian continents and control of the fur trade.fought in colonies, India, europe=france loses N.American colonies &india. french loss=support of colonists during american rev.england more powerful
Rousseau (1712-1778) People are born good and People give up their individual rights to the will of the majority. Ideal government –one freely formed by the people and directed by the general will (dir. democracy)born in Geneva (no king), orphaned,poverty, invited to salons
Discourse on the Sciences and Arts Rousseau 1750-response to essay question of Provinicial Academy. Says enlightenment is self-serving and leads to moral and political corruption. progress=powerful govts, less individual liberty,society-corruption, unhappiness
General Will (part of Rousseau's Social Contract) kind of consensus,collective moral output by members of social contract aimed at the common good. problems:determination of what it is.members must function w/ transparency/moral decisions tyrant over one's interests+democratic communism through pop vot
Discourse on origin & foundations of Inequality-rousseau modern inequality unnatural &caused by society, not the state of nature (before soc. and reason)pity+self-preservation-->need for dominance, comparing,=property/division of labor=wealth comparisons=moral inequality...often despoitism
Emile (1762) by Rousseau. Sophie:taught to be good companion/lover/wife/mother proposal for a system of education to preserve natural goodness 3 stages for a boy:5-12 play outside learn by experience, 12-16 educate in ethics, develop morality/abstract thought, 17-19 development of reason, later rationality
Mary Wollstonecraft: English 1759-97, accepted by many male intellects, critical of women's role, no formal education, ind. woman, establishes girls' school in Newington Green, sees upperclass women as lazy, useless
Joseph Johnson (1738-1809) Dissenter (wealthy intellectual rebel against english church)radical protestants, publisher, &bookseller that suggests she start writing, gives her job as editor
Thoughts on the Education of Daughters by wollstonecraft-women's rational natures are no less capable of intellectual achievement than are those of men 1787-attacks education system for women...just to be lazy and frivolous(governess job), but accepts women's place in home, child-rearing instructions, should teach rationality, independent thought, self-discipline instead of artificial manners/fashion
Mary-1788 woman abandons husband to care for sick& poor/doing good deeds, character tries to fix injustice in society, problems in society can progress with selflessness/goodness, defines marriage and feminity differently
William Goodwin 1756-1836 marries wollstonecraft, she gets pregnant, dies during childbirth
Richard Price (1723-91)friend of Mary sermon given by him, unitarian minister (does not believe in trinity):congratulates National Assembly/french Revolution -civil/religious liberty for France, implys equality "citizen of the world"doctrine of human perfectibility=w/ education+hard work
Revolution Controversy (1789-1795)began by Edmund Burke (1729-97) debate over french rev. denies perfectibility and the rights of man across all societies/cultures, defends aristocratic govt=nobility are more civilized. violent overthrow of a legitimate government
Mary's A vindication of the Rights of Man (1790)=defends idea of universal rights, ignorance=corruption, despotism=all problems direct response to burke, attacks aristocracy advocates republicanism, enlightenment belief in progress, people should be judged on their merits rather than on birthrights,criticizes inheritance and endorses commercial society (individual duties+potential
A vindication of the Rights of women (1792)=launched FEMINISM: educational reform, without education, one cannot make virtuous decisions:virtue formed from ability to reason, experience response to Emile, woman are subjugated into their position by flattery-innocent, delicate, beautiful rather than being capable, intelligent, mature...God could not have created one human being superior to another. all people have right to an indep. mind,
National Assembly 1789-->led to french revolution, tennis court oath (make new constitution) Estates General french congress(3 estates) favored nobles/clergy. each estate only got one vote, not based on size=eventually broke away, granted itself more power/representation/taxation control
Storming of the Bastille A large state prison in the center of Paris that a mob attacked on July 14, 1789, giving the masses arms for insurrection.An enormous symbolic act against the ancient régime, inspired the revolutionaries
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen-1789=equality for the bourgeuosie /universal equality document that guaranteed due process in judicial matters and established sovereignty among the French: every person equal, women,jews,slaves all citizens
October Days-1789:women gaining power, king losing power 6 thousand women staged a protest against high price of bread at the Versailles City Hall, wanted more than passive role.King Louis promised to produce bread for the masses, and allowed the women to escort himself, his family, and his court back to Paris
Olympe de Gouges-French playwright 1748-1793 & Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizen (1791) implies the vote for women, demands a national assembly of women, stresses that men must yield rights to women,emphasizes women's education,devotion to the cause of women's rights--> charged with treason under the rule of the National Convention/executed
DeChristianization Campaign=replace old regime/christian beliefs w/ enlightenment ideals/principles of revolution 1789 break all ties w old Regime (no king/queen,no clothing that show religious connections, social distinctions,cards,calendars=tries to change every aspect of life. Catholic church abolishd,RevArmy fight 4 liberty,equality, and brotherhood...Resistance
Cult of Reason -1792-94 atheistic focus on the supreme being (reason), not GOD, intended as a replacement for Christianity=new way of religion...stopped by (Robespierre's cult of supreme being and deism=existence of GOD
The Terror (1793-94) 35,000 people executed as traitors/enemies of the Revolution,through guillotine, all classes. convention organized rev. army to search for traitors (later revolutionary tribunal to try people)
Napolean Bonaparte -his military coup put an end to the revolution by declaring him the first consul of France 1769-1821 "emperor" of France, son of the revolution, worked his way up through military, supports a strong educational system for MEN,centralize imperial administration and appointed talented ministers to office, equality of all citizens,
Created by: emilybell22