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Ch. 12 Services APHG

Human Geography Chapter 12

What does spatial analysis deal with? Deals with distance, movement, or volume of something
Tourism and eco-tourism considered? A service
What is the enclosure movement and how did Great Britain use it? It was used to improve agriculture production. Great Britain transformed the rural landscape by consolidating individually owned strips of land into single, large farms.
How did Great Britain take the land? Sometimes by force.
Who proposed the central place theory? Walter Christaller
What theory seeks to explain how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists? Central Place Theory
What did Christaller's theory state about cities and services? That they have a hierarchical setup.
The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted is known as what? The market area or hinterland
What is range? The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
What is threshold? The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
What is the optimal location for a business? The most number of people within its range with a minimum driving distance/time without overlapping the range of a similar service.
What would the consequence of overlapping ranges of similar services be? Risks of losing customers to that competitor.
Ur, Titris Hoyuk, Athens, and Rome are all examples of what? Ancient world cities
What are the three modern world cities? NYC, London, and Tokyo
International company headquarters, significant global financial functions, and a polarized social structure are located where? Center of modern world cities
What do command and control centers contain? HQ of large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrated businesses.
What is an example of a command/control center? Boston or Denver
An industry that exports primarily to consumers outside the settlement and bring in capital from outside the settlement is known as what? A basic industry
What is a nonbasic industry? Enterprises whose customers live in the same community.
Retail services in the CBD tend to be those with what type of threshold? A high threshold
Why do fewer people live in the CND than in the past? The businesses are more able to pay the high rents associated with downtown apartments, and many people
Why do many people want to move to the suburbs? To access better schools, less crowded streets, and larger homes.
The few residents left downtown are often what? Poor and trapped in a cycle of poverty
Why are department stores and other business with high thresholds clustered in suburban malls as opposed to downtown? The availability and low cost of land in the suburbs versus downtown
The process by which the population of cities grow by an increase in the number of people living in cities and/or an increase in the percentage of people living in cities is? Urbanization
Who has the world's largest cities: MDCs or LDCs? LDCs
How does growth result in the world's largest cities? Emigrating from the countryside to the city
Louis Wirth socially defined the city as having what three characteristics? Large size, high density, and social heterogeneity
Where were most North American cities located before 1850? Near navigatable water ways
List the usual hierarchy of political administrative unites in order. Empire, nation-state, province, and county
When is a place considered a megalopolis? When the MSA of cities overlap a mega city is the result (or megalopolis)
What is an example of a megalopolis? Boshwash corridor
Who created the concentric zone model? E.W. Burgess
What model show the city as growing outward in concentric rings? Concentric-Zone Model
Who created the Sector Model? Homer Hoyt
What is the sector model? A modification of the concentric zone model, but uses sectors instead of zones
Who created the multiple nuclei model? C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman
What model says that the pattern of urban development is no pattern and a city is a complex structure that has more than one node? Multiple Nuclei Model
What do European and less developed cities direction of wealth do? Increases, opposite of ours
Where do European and less developed cities' rich and poor live? Rich- downtown Poor-outskirts
Low income groups tend to live in what type of residential area and where do they radiate from? Linear Residential Area and radiate from center city outward
What are squatter settlements? The outskirts are of many LDC cities where the poor are clustered
What do Squatter settlements typically lack? Running water, schools, electricity, mass transit, or any other service that one would expect in a city
Shatter-belt regions could have what type of neighborhoods? Ethnically reflective neighborhoods
What is the shatter-belt region? An area of instability located between regions with opposing political and cultural values
What is an example of a shatter-belt region? Yugoslavia
The process in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the property from private owners, "relocate" the residents, clear the site, build new infrastructure, and develop it into a new business district is know as? Urban Renewal
What is gentrification? The process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated neighborhoods and renovate the housing.
People who are often attracted to cheap housing, proximity to CBD, and availability of city amenities best fit under agglomeration or gentrification? Gentrification
What are rings of open space found within European cities know as? Greenbelts
What is smart growth? Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
Areas that develop around the ring road that are nodes of consumer and business services are what? Edge Cities
Edge cities typically have a large amount of what? Recently developed retail and office space
Who created the peripheral model? C.D. Harris
What does the peripheral model suggest? An urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
Laws developed in Europe and North America in the early 20th century that encourage spatial separation by congregating people of similar background and economic state is known as what? Zoning Ordinances
Created by: JHLevy
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