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Ch. 12 Services APHG
Human Geography Chapter 12
|What does spatial analysis deal with?
|Deals with distance, movement, or volume of something
|Tourism and eco-tourism considered?
|What is the enclosure movement and how did Great Britain use it?
|It was used to improve agriculture production. Great Britain transformed the rural landscape by consolidating individually owned strips of land into single, large farms.
|How did Great Britain take the land?
|Sometimes by force.
|Who proposed the central place theory?
|What theory seeks to explain how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists?
|Central Place Theory
|What did Christaller's theory state about cities and services?
|That they have a hierarchical setup.
|The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted is known as what?
|The market area or hinterland
|What is range?
|The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
|What is threshold?
|The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
|What is the optimal location for a business?
|The most number of people within its range with a minimum driving distance/time without overlapping the range of a similar service.
|What would the consequence of overlapping ranges of similar services be?
|Risks of losing customers to that competitor.
|Ur, Titris Hoyuk, Athens, and Rome are all examples of what?
|Ancient world cities
|What are the three modern world cities?
|NYC, London, and Tokyo
|International company headquarters, significant global financial functions, and a polarized social structure are located where?
|Center of modern world cities
|What do command and control centers contain?
|HQ of large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrated businesses.
|What is an example of a command/control center?
|Boston or Denver
|An industry that exports primarily to consumers outside the settlement and bring in capital from outside the settlement is known as what?
|A basic industry
|What is a nonbasic industry?
|Enterprises whose customers live in the same community.
|Retail services in the CBD tend to be those with what type of threshold?
|A high threshold
|Why do fewer people live in the CND than in the past?
|The businesses are more able to pay the high rents associated with downtown apartments, and many people
|Why do many people want to move to the suburbs?
|To access better schools, less crowded streets, and larger homes.
|The few residents left downtown are often what?
|Poor and trapped in a cycle of poverty
|Why are department stores and other business with high thresholds clustered in suburban malls as opposed to downtown?
|The availability and low cost of land in the suburbs versus downtown
|The process by which the population of cities grow by an increase in the number of people living in cities and/or an increase in the percentage of people living in cities is?
|Who has the world's largest cities: MDCs or LDCs?
|How does growth result in the world's largest cities?
|Emigrating from the countryside to the city
|Louis Wirth socially defined the city as having what three characteristics?
|Large size, high density, and social heterogeneity
|Where were most North American cities located before 1850?
|Near navigatable water ways
|List the usual hierarchy of political administrative unites in order.
|Empire, nation-state, province, and county
|When is a place considered a megalopolis?
|When the MSA of cities overlap a mega city is the result (or megalopolis)
|What is an example of a megalopolis?
|Who created the concentric zone model?
|What model show the city as growing outward in concentric rings?
|Who created the Sector Model?
|What is the sector model?
|A modification of the concentric zone model, but uses sectors instead of zones
|Who created the multiple nuclei model?
|C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman
|What model says that the pattern of urban development is no pattern and a city is a complex structure that has more than one node?
|Multiple Nuclei Model
|What do European and less developed cities direction of wealth do?
|Increases, opposite of ours
|Where do European and less developed cities' rich and poor live?
|Rich- downtown Poor-outskirts
|Low income groups tend to live in what type of residential area and where do they radiate from?
|Linear Residential Area and radiate from center city outward
|What are squatter settlements?
|The outskirts are of many LDC cities where the poor are clustered
|What do Squatter settlements typically lack?
|Running water, schools, electricity, mass transit, or any other service that one would expect in a city
|Shatter-belt regions could have what type of neighborhoods?
|Ethnically reflective neighborhoods
|What is the shatter-belt region?
|An area of instability located between regions with opposing political and cultural values
|What is an example of a shatter-belt region?
|The process in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the property from private owners, "relocate" the residents, clear the site, build new infrastructure, and develop it into a new business district is know as?
|What is gentrification?
|The process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated neighborhoods and renovate the housing.
|People who are often attracted to cheap housing, proximity to CBD, and availability of city amenities best fit under agglomeration or gentrification?
|What are rings of open space found within European cities know as?
|What is smart growth?
|Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
|Areas that develop around the ring road that are nodes of consumer and business services are what?
|Edge cities typically have a large amount of what?
|Recently developed retail and office space
|Who created the peripheral model?
|What does the peripheral model suggest?
|An urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
|Laws developed in Europe and North America in the early 20th century that encourage spatial separation by congregating people of similar background and economic state is known as what?