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Chapter 2- Structure

The Language of Medicine- 8th Edition

anabolism Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
Cell membrane Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
Chromosomes Rod- Shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
Cytoplasm All the materials that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
DNA Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activites of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. RIBOSOMES are found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
Genes Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
Karyotype Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromsomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
Metabolism The total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
Nucleus Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activites of the cell.
Created by: fergy