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Unit 11-17 Flashcard

Franco-Prussian War (July 19 1870-May 10 1871). Conflict between the Second French empire and the Prussian kingdom after many years of conflict. As a result Germany became a nation state while France held a grudge against Germany which extended to WW1.
American Civil war (1861-1865). Civil war fought between the North and South of the U.S. in regards to the election of an anti-slavery president. Led to European powers recognizing the U.S. as a nation state.
Socialism A system or condition of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state. It became a popular economic system in Europe in the late 1800’s.
Nationalism: West and East Political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a nation. In the 1800s’s Western and Eastern European countries caught nationalist fever. Steps were taken to preserve culture and write down legends.
Marxism Theory and practice of socialism including the labor theory of value, dialectical materialism, class struggle, and dictatorship of the proletariat until the establishment of a classless society.
Napoleon III President of the French Second republic who wanted to reassert French influence abroad. He established French rule in some countries (like Cochinchina and New Caledonia) and helped to rebuild Paris.
Klemens von Metternich German born Austrian politician and diplomat who wanted to maintain the balance of power. He was a staunch conservative and did his best to keep the Austrian empire from breaking up by crushing nationalist revolts.
Camillo di Cavour Leading figure in the movement for Italian unification. He invaded many Italian states (ex: Papal states) and negotiated with other countries for other Italian states (ex: negotiated with Napoleon III for Tuscany).
Giusseppe Garibaldi Italian general, politician and patriot. He commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of unified Italy.
Industrialization Process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. Transformed Europe in the 1800‘s, and eventually the rest of the world, into a modern society.
Otto von Bismarck German statesman who unified numerous German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership.
Tsar Alexander II Emperor of Russia from 1818-1881. He saw that Russia was “backwards” and set to fix the problem. He tried to Westernize the Russian government, was attempting to establish a rule of law, and worked to end serdom. He was assassinated in 1881.
Meiji Era (1868-1912). Japanese era where they moved from isolated feudalism into a more modern nation-state. Industrialization and financial modernization occurred during this time as well.
Mass Migration (1850-1940). Period in which 60 million people left Europe to emigrate to non-European countries like the U.S., Canada, Brazil, etc. They left because of political reasons, to avoid compulsory military service, persecution, and even starvation.
Balance of Payment Accounting record of all monetary transactions between a country and the rest of the world. These transactions include payments for the country's exports and imports of goods, services, financial capital, and financial transfers.
Gold Standard Monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. Led to declining prices which were advantageous to the wage earning class, but not to people who worked with borrowed money.
New Imperialism Colonial expansion adopted by European countries which grew out of a combination of nationalism, security, and the desire to control trading routes and resources.
Russo Turkish War (1877-1878). Series of wars between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The wars reflected the decline of the Ottoman Empire and resulted in the gradual southward extension of Russia’s frontier and influence into Ottoman territory.
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908- October 30, 1918). Included the events of the Young Turk Revolution, establishment of the Second Constitutional Era, and ended with the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War II.
Partition of Africa Process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism. It was usually for economic gain.
Russo Japanese war 1904-1905 Military conflict between Russia and Japan over their rivalry to obtain Korea and Manchuria. The war resulted in Japan being victorious and becoming the first Asian power to defeat a European one. Stopped Russians expansionist policies.
Seven Weeks War (June 14, 1866- June 23 1866) War between Prussia and Austria. It ended in a Prussian victory, which meant the exclusion of Austria from Germany.
Dominion of Canada (1867) The British North America Act fused the North American British colonies of the Province of Canada, the Province of New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This led to Britain withdrawing from Canadian affairs.
Dreyfus Affair Scandal where Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus was wrongfully convicted to life in prison for treason. It revealed deep anti-Semitism in France, and would divide the country from the 1890s-1900s.
William II Last German Emperor and King of Prussia. He supported Austria-Hungary after the crisis of July 1914 which led to WWI; by the end of WWI he was force to abdicate the throne.
Revisionist Belief that class conflict may not be inevitable, capitalism may be gradually transformed in the workers interest, and that workers could obtain their ends through democratic channels.
Simon Bolivar Venezuelan military and political leader. He played a key role in liberating Venezuela and Colombia from Spanish rule.
Syndicalism Type of economic system proposed as a replacement for capitalism and an alternative to state socialism, which uses federations of collectivized trade unions or industrial unions. Took hold in countries with weak trade unions like Italy.
Created by: 1153901258