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Chap 18 Urinary Syst

The Urinary System

The urinary system consists of 2 what? Kidneys and 2 ureters
The urinary system also consists of a ____ and _________? Bladder and urethra
What is the function of the kidneys? To form urine
What is urine? Waste products of cells
What are some other functions of the kidneys? Regulate blood pressure, regulate electrolytes and regulate Ph.
How is blood pressure regulated by the kidneys? By excreting or conserving water.
How are electrolytes regulated? By excreting or conserving minerals and salts
How is the Ph regulated by the kidneys? By excreting or conserving ions
What is the location of the kidneys? Superior posterior abdominal cavity under the lower ribs on both sides of the spine.
The kidneys are embedded in what type of tissue? Adipose tissue
Why are the kidneys embedded in adipose tissue? For protection
The kidneys are covered with what? Renal fascia
The renal fascia that covers the kidneys holds what purpose? To hold the kidneys in place
The medial indentation where structures enter and exit the kidney is called? Hilus
The Hilus is made of what? Veins, arteries, nerves and the ureter.
The functional unit of the kidneys is called? A nephron
The nephron forms urine from the? Blood
How many nephrons can be found in each kidney? 1 million
What are the two major parts of the nephron? Renal corpuscles, renal tubule
The capillary network that starts from an afferent arteriole and ends as an efferent arteriole? Glomerulus
The afferent arteriole is? Incoming
The efferent arteriole is? Outgoing
The efferent arteriole is______ than the afferent? Smaller
Why is the efferent arteriole smaller? To increase the blood pressure in the glomerulus.
What surrounds the glomerulus? Bowmans capsule
Renal filtrate eventually becomes? Urine
Continuation of the outer glomerular capsule is called the? Renal tubule
What are the three parts of the Renal tubule? Proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule
The renal tubule is covered in? Peritubular capilaries
The peritubular capilaries arise from what? Efferent arterioles
The distal tubules of several nephrons empty into what? Collecting tubules
Several collecting tubules converge to form a what? Papillary duct
What are the three major urine formation processes? Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorbtion and tubular secretion.
The processes of blood pressure forcing plasma, dissolved substances and small proteins out of glomeruli into Bowman's capsules is called? Glomerular filtration
Glomerular filtration rate is the amount of renal filtrate formed in? 1 min
99% of filtrate is reabsorbed in this step? tubular reabsorbtion
65% of the reabsorbtion takes place in the proximal convoluted what? Tubules
The remaining reabsorbtion takes place in the ______ of __________? Loop of Henle
What uses ATP to actively transport useful materials from the filtrate back to the blood? Active Transport
What type of transport does not require energy? Passive transport
During ___________ water follows solutes? Osmosis
The active process where larger molecules are engulfed by the cell membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule is called? Pinocytosis
Proteins in urine are a sign of what? Kidney failure
The active transport from the peritubular capillaries to the renal tubules is called? Tubular secretion
Aldosterone will do what to the reabsorbtion of Na+ and the excretion of K+ and BP? Increase Na+ and K+ and also increase BP
Atrial natriuretic peptide will do what to the reabsorption of Na+ and BP? Decrease Na+ and BP
Antidiuretic hormone will do what to the reabsorption of H2O and BP? Increase H2O and BP
Kidneys are the main factor in blood __? Ph
Secretion of renin is what? A function of the kidneys
Secretion of renin leads to release of angiotensis II and? Aldosterone
Renin ends up doing what to BP? Increasing it
Secretion of erythropoietin is another function of the kidneys and it stimulates the production of? Red blood cells
The paired tubes that go from each hilus to posteroinferior urinary bladder are called? Ureters
The smooth muscle in the ureters move urine with? Peristalsis
As the bladder fills if compresses the inferior ureter to prevent what? Back flow
The muscular sac below the peritoneum posterior to the pubic bone is called? Urinary bladder
The urinary bladder holds up to? 800 mL of urine
What type of epithelium permits expansion of the urinary bladder? Transitional epithelium
The smooth muscle layer superficial to epithelium is called? Detrusor muscle
What shape is the detrusor muscle? Sphere shaped
The fibers of the detrusor muscle are called? Internal urethral sphincter
The muscles of the detrusor are? Involuntary
The single tube from bladder to vagina or penis is called? Urethra
The external urethral sphincter is made of what type of muscle? Skeletal muscle
The skeletal muscle of the external urethral sphincter is? Voluntary
The urethra is _________ in men? Longer
The urethra in men is divided into three parts what are they called? Prostatic urethra, membronous, and cavernous (spongy)
The urethra in men carried what? Urine and semen
Another name for urination is? Micturition or voiding
Urination is stimulated by the ___________ of the detrusor muscle? Stretching
Urination can be __________ voluntarily? Overridden
A sensation to urinate is generated at how many mL's? 200-400
The normal daily output of urine is? 2 L
What is the definition of Oliguria? Decreased urination
What is the definition of Polyuria? Increased urination
Oliguria is caused by what? Sweating, and decreased fluid intake
Polyuria is caused by what? Diabetes, excess fluid intake, alcohol, caffeine, and diuretics
The yellow byproduct of bile breakdown is called? Urochrome
Urochrome is another name for the ____________ of urine? Color
When urochrome is more concentrated it will be? Darker
When urochrome is dilute it will be? Lighter
Freshly voided urine should be? Clear not cloudy
What % of urine is water? 95%
What % of urine is excess salts and waste products? 5%
What is formed in the liver from the breakdown of AA's? Urea
What is formed when there is a breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscles? Creatinine
What is formed when there is a breakdown of nucleic acids? Uric acid
What is formed from hemoglobin of dead RBC's? Urobilin
Created by: ShanellStock