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Palmer Unit 2

Chapters 6-10

Treaties of Paris First: May 30, 1814 confined France to its boundaries of 1792. Second: 1815 after Napoleon's second abdication/exile. France subject to minor changes of frontiers, indemnity of 700 million francs, and an army of occupation.
Congress of Vienna Sept 1814-1815 Discussed a proper balance of power that would produce a lasting peace.
Russia withdraws from Continental System Dec 31, 1810 Anglo-Russian commercial relations resumed and and led Napoleon to lead the Grand Army into Russia June 1812
Treaty of Tilsit July 1807 Negotiation in which French and Russian empires became allies and Alexander accepted Napoleon as Emperor of the West and himself, the East
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand An aristocrat of the Old Regime who became Minister of foreign affairs in Consulate France. Believed in a balance among several parts of Europe and betrayed Napoleon in his advice to Alexander I
Clamens von Metternich A German from west of the Rhine who became Austrian foreign minister in 1809 who sought diplomacy with France for the reason that he believed Russia was a permenent problem for his state.
Viscount Castlereagh British foreign minister who succeeded on March 9, 1814 in allying Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain against France in the treaty of Chaumont
Napoleon I Jacobin officer made Brigadier General by government if the Terror, First Consul of French Authoritarian Republic, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
Oath of the Tennis Court June 20 1789 Affirmed that the National Assembly was in existence wherever they gathered and would not disband until they had drafted a constitution
Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789 In response to the 18,000 soldiers summoned by the kinf at Versailles, the Third Estate led an insurrection in a place of detention in search of weapons and a canon
"Second" Revolution in France August 10, 1792 Working-class quarters of the city of Paris stormed Tuileries and seized the royal family and set up a Paris Commune which forced the election of a Constitutional Convention
Maximilien Robspierre A prominent member of the Mountain and was determined in 1793-94 to bring about a democratic republic made up of good, virtuous, and honest citizens. Influenced the Reign of Terror and was guillotined on July 28, 1794
Jacobins Members of a prominent club, Society of Friends of the Constitution, who for the most part sought to further revolution. Included the Girondins.
Montesquieu His work, Spirit of Laws (1748), set forth the idea that forms of government varied according to climate ands circumstance and the docrine of the separation and balance of powers
Voltaire His work, Universal History, presented a purely secular conception of World History. Believed that no supernatural revelation was necessary in addition to reason. Favored an enlightened government
Jean-Jacques Rosseau His discourses Arts and Sciences (1750) and Origin of Inequality Among Men (1753) argued that civilization was the source of much evil. In the Social Contract (1762), he thought it an agreement among people themselves to work for a General Will.
Catherine II (the Great) Empress of Russia who's reforms included legal codification, restrictions on use of torture, certain support of religious toleration, but also the failed reform of serfdom. Her foreign policies were expansionist and unscrupulous
Jean-Joseph Laborde Owned plantations and slaveholdings in West Indies and became one of the leading bankers in England. Raised money for French Gov. in seven years war, war of amrican independence, and financed insurrection which led to the fall of the Bastille
Peace of Aix-la-Chappelle 1748 Britain and France returned to prewar status quo. Maria Theresa required to cede Italian Duchies to Spain and Silesia to Prussia
Frederick II (the Great) Became king of Prussia in 1740 and started the War of Austrian Succesion when he ignored the pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia on Dec 16, 1740
Francis Bacon His work, Novum Organum (1620) insisted in the inductive method of aquiring knowledge. His Advancement of Learning (1623) insisted true knowledge was useful knowledge. His New Atlantis (1627) portrayed a scientific utopia through peoples command of nature
Rene Descartes "I think, therefore I am." Discourse on Method (1637) advanced principal of systematic doubt. Arrived at philosophy of Cartesian Dualism, think and extended substance as two fundamental realities of the universe
Thomas Hobbes Published Leviathan (1651) made him the leading secular exponent of absolutism. He analyzed that absolute power was a means necessary to the realization of natural law
John Locke In 1680, he wrote Two Treatises of Government. Declared that Government is created by a contract with mutual obligations between them and the people. Held that only rational beings could be free.
Michel de Montaigne "What do I know?"-"Nothing." Held that there is no certain knowledge and expressed a relative outlook, specially in his famous essay on cannibals where he observed different customs and questioned "who are we to judge?"
Created by: rhiyanna