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Cells & Tissues

Chemistry of the Cell-Test #1

What are the 6 Macronutrients of the cell? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nirtrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus
What are the elements imp. to life? Hydrogen, Oxygen
What are the trace elements? Iron, Zinc, Magnesium, Cobalt
Bond elements combine to complete outer shell of elect. for each element
Covalent Bond Shared pair of electrons b/w 2 atoms
Polar Covalent Bond One atom has the shared elect. more (electronegative "electron greedy) than the other atom. Oxygen & Nitrogen most electron negative atoms. H20 ex. of polar covalent bond.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond elect. shared equally b/w atoms
Ionic Bond Very strong bonds. Electronegative element removes electron from another atom. Molecules frequently form crystals that are soluble in water
Example of Ionic Bond chlorine and sodium
Hydrogen Bond weaker than covalent or ionic bonds. Are stable in large molecules w/ many hydrogen bonds. Imp. in secondary structure of proteins.
van der Waals interactions weaker than hydrogen bonds. Found in macromolecules. interaction b/w aromatic compounds. distance is crucial; not too close/not too far. Found in interaction b/w stacked bases in DNA
Hydrophobic interactions In interior of molecules sequestered from water on exterior. b/w nonpolar molecules that come together to limit exposure to water-lipids. More stable when hyrdrophobic regions are near one another.
Carbon Tetravalent-forms 4 covalent bonds. Side groups (functional groups) increases diversity. Common bonds w/ carbons, oxygen, hyrdrogen, and nitrogen. Forms -, =, triple bonds. Forms stable compounds-require high energy to break bond.
Asymmetric Carbon carbon w/ 4 diff. attached groups. Can have 2 diff. spatial arrangements. Stereoisomers (mirror images)
Water Makes up 75-85% of cell weight-most abundant component. Is a polar molecule. POLARITY: bond angles b/w O & H; separation charges-one end more negative than other; affects cohesiveness, heat capacity, & solvent prop.
Water Cohesiveness: hydrogen bonds b/w water molecules; increases surface tension, boiling point, etc
Water Heat Capacity: specific heat high b/c of hyrdrogen bonds; amt absorbed/gram to increase temp 1°C. can absorb heat released during chemical rxns.
Water Solvent: dissolves variety of solutes; relatively inert; polarity allows it to hyrdate + or - charged ions & polar molecules (hydrophilic water loving) ; nonpolar molecules insoluble in water (hydrophobic) disrupt bonds b/w water molecules so are excluded
What is an amphipathic molecule? Macromolecules that have polar and non polar regions
What do amphipathic molecules form? Micelles
Macromolecules A molecule containing a very large # of atoms. Measured in kilodaltons. Linear molecules. Imp. structural & functional components of cells.
What are macromolecules composed of? Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides
Synthesis of macromolecule from smaller molecules 1.Polymerization: bonding monomers "sngl units" together to form polymers. Each addtn releases H2O-condensation. 2.Components must be activated-requires ATP energy. 3.Components attached to carrier molecules-grwth always @ end of a sgl mlcule 4.Direction
Macromolecules Contain the necessary info. for proper folding & organiz. essential in structure
Macromolecule Protein Assembly As its being translated on ribosome it undergoes self-assembly=Polypeptide necessary for proper folding and final config. to give correct shape. Assisted self-assembly by chaperones=used for larger, more complex proteins composed of more than one polypep
Macromolecule Protein Assembly cont'd Asstd. self-assembly must have assistance to form final shape. Chaparone does not form part of the protein. transiently binds to exposed parts of polypep. & prevents inappropriate interactions
What are the 4 classes macromolecules? What are the building blocks of each? PROTEINS-Amino Acids NUCLEIC ACIDS-Nucleotides LIPIDS-Fatty Acids POLYSACCHARIDES-Sugars
How many types of amino acids are found in celluar proteins? 20
Amino acids are linked by what type of bond? A peptide bond (covalent bond) formed b/w amine group of one amino acid and carboxyl group of next amino acid
Amino acids are classified by what? According to nature of unique functional group
What are the 3 types of amino acids? How many belong to each class? 9 Nonpolar hydrophobic amino acids; 6 Polar uncharged amino acids; 5 Polar charged amino acids
What do the 9 nonpolar hyrdophobic amino acids mostly lack? Oxygen & Nitrogen in functional group
How many polar uncharged amino acids are there? Six amino acids and they are hydrophilic
How many polar charged amino acids are there? A total of 5. 2 ACIDIC and 3 BASIC hyrophilic amino acids.
Amino acids can exist in two stereoisomers (D and L forms) due to what presence? The presence of asymmetric carbon.
What are polypeptides? Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
What is Translation? Protein synthesis or the specific order in which each polypeptide is formed.
What are the two ways that proteins may be composed of? Either a sing polypeptide (monomeric) or multiple polypeptides (multimeric)
What are the 4 hierarchical levels of organization in a polypeptide? Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, & Quartnary Structures
The Primary Structure is based on what? Based on amino acid sequence. The order of amino acids in the linear sequence of the protein
What happens in the level of structure in a Secondary Structure? 2 types of shapes form either an α-helix or a β-pleated sheet. The form it takes on is determined by hydrogen bonding within the polypeptide.
A Tertiary Structure has what type of shape? A 3-D shape due to the long-distance interactions within polypeptide due to hydrogen bonds & disulfide bonds. Polar covalent or charged are hydrophilic-exterior. Nonpolar are hyrdrophobic-interior
Quartenary Strucure has what shape? A multiple subunit of proteins formed by the interaction of multiple polypeptides to form multimeric structures. Example-hemoglobin
What are the diff. functions of proteins? Enzymes-catalyze metabolic reactions; Structural-structural components of cell; Motor-ex. sperm; Transport; Storage; Signal; Receptors; Regulate Gene Expression-by activating or repressing
What are lipids? Are macromolecules that are nonpolar and have fatty acids as they're building blocks. They are hyrdrophobic (nonsoluble in water) ; soluble in nonpolar solvents; mostly hyrdrocarbon chains containing C and H; some have polar regions-amphipathic
What is the definition of amphipathic? To have both polar and nonpolar regions
What are the diff. classes of lipids? Fatty acids, triglycerides, phopholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, steroids, and terpenes
What are Triglycerides? A type of lipid that is considered a true fat. It is used for energy storage and a very efficient form of energy. Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
What are the 3 types of triglycerides? Fatty acids, Saturated fatty acids, and Unsaturated fatty acids
Whats the structural composition of a fatty acid? An unbranched hydrocarbon chain with carboxyl group
What's the structural composition of a saturated fatty acid? All singe bonds. Most fats are saturated fatty acids and are SOLID at room temp.
What's the structural composition of Unsaturated Fatty Acids? Composed of one or more double bonds. Oils are mostly unsaturated fatty acids and are LIQUID at room temp.
What is a phospholipid? A type of lipid that is amphipathic (hyrophobic & hyrdraphilic) and as such tends to self-assemly into membranes. Phosphate group replaces one fatty acid and they usually have alcohol linked to phosphate. Polar head group creates amphipathic structure
What is a sphingolipid? A type of lipid that is also amphipathic and primarily found in NEURO tissue or membranes. Its based on sphingosine-an amine alcohol.
What is a Glycolipid? A type of lipid that is amphipathic & found in the membranes of nerve tissue or on the outer surface of plasma membranes. They act as recognition types for other molecules to be attracted to them.
What is a steroid? A type of lipid that is amphipathic and found in plasma membranes and is the source of all steroid hormones like androgens, estrogens, and cortisol.
What is the most common type of steroid? Cholesterol which helps keep fluidity
What are terpenes? A type of lipid used in the synthesis of Vit. A, coenzyme Q, carotenoid pigments
What are polysaccharides? Types of sugars that are storage and structural molecules. Made of monomers of simple sugars (monosaccharides)
Starch & Glycogen are used for what in polysaccharides? For storage
The polysaccharide Cellulose is used for what? For structural purposed only in PLANTS
What are the diff. types of monosaccharides? Aldosugars, Ketosugars, Hexose Sugars (most common=glucose) Pentose Sugars
What are Disaccharides? Two monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bond (ex. sucrose-table sugar & lactose-milk sugar)
Nucleic acids are a polymer of what? Nucleotides
Nucleotides are made up of what? Nitrogenous base; Pentose Sugar & Phosphate
Nucleic Acids are synthesized by what? By a phosphodiester bond b/w phosphate group & sugar of adj. nucleotide
The synthesis of a nucleotide is in what direction? 5' to 3' direction
What are nucleotides used for in the cell? Storage of genetic info-DNA; expression of genetic info.-RNA; source of utilizable chemical energy in cell
What type of bond connects the monomers of Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Polysaccharides? Protein-peptide bond; Nucleic Acids-phosphodiester bond; Polysaccharide-Glycocidic Bond
Created by: terryg025