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ChiroBoards2: Lig/NN

ChiroBoards2: Ligaments, Joints, Palpation, and Nervous System

Holds dens in fovea dentalis of atlas Transverse Ligament
C0 to body of C2, Cross-shaped Cruciate Ligaments
Sides of dens to occipital condyles Alar ligament
Alar Ligament: aka check ligament
Alar Ligament: its purpose is to limit... rotation of C2
Apex of dens to anterior aspect of foramen Apical Dental Ligament
Apical Dental Ligament: its purpose it to limit... flexion/extension of C2
ligaments connecting pia to dura along the spinal cord Dentate Ligaments
Dentate Ligaments: How many? 21 pairs
front of vertebral bodies from the sacrum to C2 ALL
Continuation of the ALL from ATLAS to OCCIPUT Anterior atlanto-occipital lig.
Anterior atlanto-occipital lig. limits.... extension
Runs posteriorly against the vertebral bodies PLL
PLL: wide and thin portions? wider in cervicals; thinner in lumbars (thinnest at L5)
PLL: limits... flexion
Continuation of the PLL from C2 to OCCIPUT Tectorial membrane
Tectorial membrane limits.... flexion
Makes up 25% of height of spine IVD
IVD is made of: Fibrocartilage
Lamina to Lamina Ligamentum Flavum
Ligamentum Flavum limits... flexion
Continuation of Ligamentum Flavum from C2 to C1 Posterior Atlantoaxial ligament
Continuation of Ligamentum Flavum from C1 to C0 Posterior Atlantooccipital ligament
Calcified Posterior Atlantooccipital ligament: aka Arcuate Foramen
Between articular processes capsular ligament
Between intertransverse processes intertransverse ligament
Between spinous processes Interspinous ligaments
From spinous to spinous Supraspinous ligaments
Continuation of the supraspinous ligament from C7 to OCCIPUT Ligamentum Nuchae
A alpha: Sensory fiber Muscle spindle: joint position sense, vibration sense, 2 point descrimination
A alpha: Type of nerve fiber Muscle spindle detects stretch; 1a motor;
A beta: type of sensory fiber 1B Golgi Tendon Organ: senses tension and touch pressure receptor afferents
A gamma Muscle spindle efferent; gamma motor neuron
A delta: Fiber type and type of sense III ; Fast pain (pressure pain, ex. pinch)
B fiber Preganglionic autonomic efferent; white rami communicantes
C fiber: Fiber type and type of sense IV ; slow pain, temperature afferent; postganglionic autonomic efferent; gray rami communicantes
Rubrospinal fxn proximal muscle flexors of upper extremities
Reticulospinal fxn extensor mm. of back and arms (except any back muscles innervated by a plexus)
Tectospinal fxn neck muscles reflexive to light and sound
Vestibulospinal fxn Extensors of back and legs
Corticospinal fxn flexors of distal extremities
Corticospinal: special type of large cells Giant Cells of Betz
Spinothalamic Lateral fxn pain and temperature
Spinothalamic Ventral fxn crude touch and pressure
Receptors of the Dorsal Columna (3) Meissner's/Merkel's, Pacinian, Ruffini
Dorsal Column fxn (4) CONSCIOUS proprioception; vibration; joint position sense; 2 point discrimination
Meissner's/Merkel's receptor Touch
Pacinian receptor vibration
Ruffini receptor joint position sense
Spinocerebellar UNCONSCIOUS proprioception
Muscle Spindle Cell: Type and Fxn Type 1a fiber; picks up STRETCH
Golgi Tendon Organ: Type and Fxn Type 1b fiber; picks up TENSION
Astrocytes store glucose (also forms blood brain barrier)
Microglia aka Macrophages (in the brain)
Ependymal cells line what structures? ventricles and produce CSF
Oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the cns
MS demyelination of CNS
Schwann cells come from neural crest cells to produce myelin in the PNS
Meissner's and Auerbach's plexuses From neural crest cells and allows for peristalsis
Meissner's vs. Auerback's: histology Meissner's = Mucosal ; Auerbach's = muscular
Renshaw cells from neural crest cells and inhibit alpha motor neuron (-) feedback
4 parasympathetic CN's CN III, VII, IX, X
Meric (DumDum) Chart : T1-T4 Heart and lungs
Meric (DumDum) Chart: T5-T9 Stomach (GERD)
Meric (DumDum) Chart: T4 Gallbladder
Meric (DumDum) Chart: T6-T10 Liver, Pancreas, GALLBLADDER
Meric (DumDum) Chart: T10-T12 Kidney (UTI)
Meric (DumDum) Chart: L1-L2 Ovary, Colon (sympathetically driven)
Meric (DumDum) Chart: Sacrum Colon, Uterus (parasympathetically driven)
IVF Boundaries: anterior bodies and IVD
IVF Boundaries: superior and inferior Pedicles
IVF Boundaries: Posterior facet joints
Nerve root sheaths occupy___________% of the IVF 35-50%
50-65% of the IVF foramen contains the following: (6 structures) Loose areolar tissue, adipose tissue, spinal artery, veins, lymphatics, an recurrent meningeal nerve.
Compression of IVF : (4 affected structures) Fat/V.A.N (Veins, arteries, nerves)
Structure that is inside the IVF that is MOST sensitive to compression and MOST affected by subluxation. Dorsal Root Ganglia
Least to Greatest Pressure Changes in Disc: Based on body positioning Recumbent-->Standing-->Sitting-->Sitting with forward lean--> Jumping
Weakest part of the disc posterolateral aspect (due to narrower PLL)
Compressive load on disc causes fracture of this structure first End plate (with no herniation)
Nutrition to the disc by way of______________ imbibition (motion)
Ankylosis pathological fusion of bones across a joint
Allodynia perception of pain from a normally non painful stimulus
Axonotmesis Type II nerve injury; disruption of axon with Wallerian degeneration, resulting in temporary paralysis and sensory changes.
Hyperemia presence of excess blood in the vessels supplying a particular region of the body
Hysteresis loss of energy during cyclic loading and unloading of viscoelastic substance, i.e. jumping
Meniscoid intra-articular synovial tabs
Muscle spindle receptor sensitive to stretch (length) of intrafusal fibers
Neuropraxia: definition Type I nerve injury; local nerve conduction block (nerve pressure or blunt trauma) with no physical disruption of axon
Neuropraxia: results in transient paralysis, slight sensory changes, and no reaction of degeneration.
Neuropraxia: recovery time range hours to days
Axonotmesis: recovery time range weeks to months
Neurotmesis: definition Type III nerve Injury; partial or complete severance of the nerve. Full reaction of degeneration with no recovery possible
Sinu-vertebral nerve: aka Recurrent meningeal nerve
Sinu-vertrebral nerve: afferents supply Free nerve endings connected to fascia, ligaments, periosteum, intervertebral joints, and IVD
Sinu-vertebral nerve: goes to which ligaments and tissue? (3) PLL; Ligamentum Flavum; and Anterior Dura (NOT THE ALL)
Soma (somatic) refers to refers to skin, bone, nerve, and muscle
Vertebral arteries begin at what nerve root? C6
Viscera refers to autonomic organs, blood, and lymph
Vitalism The principle that maintains the laws of physics and chemistry cannot explain the nature of life.
Hilton's Law Trunk of a nerve sends branches to a particular muscle; the joint moved by the muscle and skin overlying the muscle insertion.
Hilton's Law: Patho application Altered nerve activity to a muscle may be associated with altered nerve activity to the segmentally related spinal joints.
Heuter Volkmann's Law Increased epiphyseal pressure leads to decreased growth and vice versa. (Scheuermann's Dx**)
Bell-Magendie Anterior horn of the cord is motor while the posterior horn is sensory
Created by: bglasman
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