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chiropractic board review

Anterior spinal roots are motor, posterior sensory Bell Magende's Law
At constant temperature, a volume of gas varies inversely with pressure: V/P Boyle's Law
At constant pressure, a volume of gas varies directly with absolute pressure: V*P Charles' Law
Solubility of gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas Henry's Law
Ventricular pressure depends on muscular tension, size and shape of the heart LaPlace's Law
Cardiac output is directly proportional to diastolic filling: CO*filling Starling's Law
Limits respiratory excursion via the vagus nerve Hering Breuer's Law
Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell into the... capillary
Carbon dioxide is transported via 3 forms dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood (7%), in combination with hemoglobin (23%), and as bicarbonate ions (70%)
How is bicarbonate formed? when carbon dioxide enters the red blood cell and combines with water via carbonic anhydrase to form carbonic acid, which dissociates into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions.
What is the chloride shift? Bicarbonate diffuses out of the RBC into plasma while Cl ions diffuse into the RBC.
97% of what is carried by hemoglobin? Oxygen
Krause nerve ending cold
ruffini nerve ending hot
meissner nerve ending touch and pressure
Pacinian nerve ending touch
merkel's nerve ending touch
Free nerve endings pain
naked free nerve endings nociception
tidal volume normal breathing, 500mL
inspiratory reserve 3000mL
expiratory reserve 1100mL
residual volume 1200mL
inspiratory capacity=TV+IR max air inspired, 3500mL
functional residual capacity=(ER+RV) 2300 mL
vital capacity=IR+ER+TV max volume taken in after max exhalation, 5800mL
Has inspiratory and expiratory control centers medulla oblongata
apneustic center and pneumotaxic center. limits the duration of inspiration, but increases resp rate pons
Chemoreceptors in the chemosensitive areas in the medulla oblongata are excited by? Carbon dioxide and hydrogen
Peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are sensitive to? PO2
Respiration is stimulated by an increase in? PCO2, H, and low PO2
Respiration is inhibited by a decrease in? PCO2, H, and high PO2
How does one with diabetes mellitus regulate metabolic acidosis through respiration? There is an increase in ketone bodies, respiration is stimulated, called Kussmaul's breathing, causing a "blowing off" of CO2 thus lowering the hydrogen concentration.
How does the body balance metabolic alkalosis such as caused by vomiting through respiration? hydrogen concentration is lowered, so respiration is inhibited which causes an increase in the PCO2 and thus increases the blood hydrogen concentration.
Hyperventilation causes respiratory alkalosis, How? low hydrogen concentration since there is a low PCO2. Rebreathing expired air increases PCO2 and returns the blood pH to normal
Respiratory acidosis is caused by... low pH of blood due to hypoventilation
Posterior Pituitary/Neurohypophysis/Neuroectoderm connected to the base of the brain via supraoptic hypophyseal tract
Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Antidiuretic Hormone/ADH/Vasopressin and oxytocin
ADH functions acts upon the kidney to reabsorb water in the collecting duct. Increases blood pressure. Decreased ADH produces polydypsia and polyuria seen in diabetes insipidus
Oxytocin functions respondible for milk let down and uterine contractions during labor and after birth
Anterior Pituitary/Rathke's Pouch influenced by negative feedback or releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus
Growth Hormone/GH/Somatotropin stimulated by growth hormone releasing factor from the hypothalamus. GHRF is responsible for stimulating the release of growth hormone and the release of an inhibitory hormone called somatostatin.
Decreased growth hormone dwarfism
increased growth hormone giantism
ACTH/Corticotropin sitimulates the adrenal gland
TSH/Thyrotropin stimulates thyroid
FSH stimulates follicle in preparation for ovulation in females. stimulates sperm prodution in males
LH responsible for ovulation in females. regulates testosterone production
prolactin stimulates milk production post partum
Pars intermedia melanocyte stimulating hormone
Calcitonin takes calcium out of the blood and into the bone. Made by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid
Thyroxine/T4 major hormone from the thyroid to regulate metabolism
Triiodothyronine/T3 Chemiically more active thatn Thyroxine. Important in maintaining basal metabolism.
Decreased thyroid hormones produce cretin in children and myxedema in adults
Increased thyroid hormones produce increased metabolic processes, increased sympathetics and may lead to Graves disease
Parathyroid increases blood calcium, decreases reabsorption of phosphates
Parathormone takes calcium out of the bone and into the blood stream. Important in many enzyme reaction and for contraction of muscles
Decreased parathormone tetany or muscle twitches
Parathormone levels increased with osteitis fibrosa cystica
Increases of parathormone in the blood produce increases of parathormone in the kidneys
Adrenal cortex: zona glomerulosa aldosterone (salt)
Adrenal cortex: zona fasciculata cortisol (sugar)
Adrenal cortex: zona reticularis androgen (sex)
aldosterone a mineralocorticoid that reduces sodium excretion by the kidneys and increases potassium excretion.
cortisol a glucocorticoid that controls metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins (sugar)
adrenal medulla medulla is a derived from neural crest cells. secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. acts as postganglionic sypathetic nervous system
both secreted in response to sypathetic stimulation epinephrine and norepinephrine
somatostatin made in the hypothalamus to inhibit growth hormone. also made by the delta cells of the pancreas to inhibit insulin and glucagon in the pancreas, gastrin in the gastric mucosa, secretin in the intestinal mucosa and renin in the kidneys
somatomedin a peptide formed in the liver and other tissues which mediates the effects of growth hormone on cartilage
estrogen produce by the ovarian follicle after stimulation by FSH. Thickens the lining of the uterus in teh proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle (1st stage)
progesterone produced by the corpus lutem after ovulation. increases thickness of the uterine lining to make it ready for implantation. Increases in 2nd stage of the mentraul sycle called secretory stage. also responsible for increase in body temp (thermogenic hormone
testosterone produced by intersitial cells of Leydig in testes
insulin secreated by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to glucose. takes sugar out of the bloodstream and into the body tissues
glucagon responsible for increasing blood sugar
myenteric plexus/auerbach's plexus in muscular layer of digestive tract for GI motility
Meissner's Plexus in the submucosa to promote secretions
Mouth ptyalin
stomach cheif cells, parietal cells, gastrin
chief cells pepsinogen in the presence of HCl becomes pepsin, Rennin clots milk
parietal cells produce HCl and intrinsic factor
gastrin helps with protein digestion
duodenum makes cholecystokinin and secretin
secretin stimulates the flow of pancreatic juice and decreases gastric motility
cholecystokinin a hormone responsible for contraction of the gall bladder when fat is present
pancreas lipase, amylase, maltase
trypsinogen activated by enterokinase in intestine
trypsin and chymotrypsin split proteins
SA node pacemaker. self excitatory to the internodal pathways to the AV node (delays impulse) then teh the AV bundle (of His) to the purkinje system which conducts the impulse to the ventricles
P wave atrial depolarization
QRS wave ventricular depolarization (atrial repolarization)
T wave ventricular repolarization
Diastole period of ventricular relaxation
Systole period of ventricular contraction
first heart sound closure AV valves during isometric contraction "LUB"
second heart sound closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves during isometric relaxation at the beginning of diastole
Dicrotic notch the small downward deflection in teh arterial pulse or pressure contour immediately following the closure of the semilunar valves somethimes used as a marker for the end of systole or ejectin period (S-T)
Sterling's Law Cardiac output is directly proportional to diastolic filling
baroreceptors in the carotid and aortic arches, respond to changes in blood pressure
relaxed muscle calcium is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. the calcium in the sarcoplasm is low, the ATP is attached to the myosin crossbridges. this prevents the combining of actin and myosin
the nerve impulse fires, then calcium to be released at the myoneural junction which causes ACETYLCHOLINE release to the T tubules
ACETYLOCHOLINE release to the T tubules causes: SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM to release CALCIUM
ACTIN combines with MYOSIN
ACTINOMYOSIN reacts producing a contraction
calcium goes back to the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and the myosin becomes inactivated
ADP goes back to ATP
ATP binds once again with myosin
Tropomyosin-troponin reattaches to actin and bridges separate to reform they we have relaxation
action potential inside the cell is K+ and Mg++, outside the cell is Na+ and Cl-
stimulation increases membrane permeability to sodium
passive depolarization Na+ goes into the cell by diffusion creating a change in electronegativity. K+ goes out of the cell. Cl- goes into the cell. Decreased membrane permeability to Na, K, and Cl.
Active transport Na goes out of cell. K goes into cell. Repolarization occurs due to increased potassium conductance. moves back to resting membrane potential.
resting membrane potential muscle: -90mV Neuron: -70mV
Absolute Refractory Period when a second action potential can not be elicited
Relative Refractory Period when a second action potential can be elicited, but must be a greater stimulus than the first.
Rheobase minimum current strength for an action potential to occur
Chronaxie time needed using 2x the rheobase for excitation
Transmission of impulse in CNS: excitatory ACH, Norepinephrine, Glutamate, Dopamine and Serotonin
Transmission of impulse in CNS: inhibitory Glycine, GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)
Transmission of impulse in PNS: NM junction: ACH
Transmission of impulse in PNS: Autonomic NS ACH and Norepinephrine
Acetylecholine ativates 2 receptors Muscarine-effector cells of parasympath (stomach), and Nicotinic-skeletal muscle fibers, symp and parasym
Autonomic Nervous System divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic fight or flight
parasympathetic wine and dine
Sympathetic effects blood vessels in skin by: vasoconstriction
Sympathetic effects blood vessels in muscle by: vasodilation
Sympathetic effects the heart by: increasing rate and force
Sympathetic effects the lungs and bronchi by: dilating and deep breathing
Sympathetic effects the GI by: decreasing secretions
Sympathetic effects peristalsis by: decreasing it
Sympathetic effects eyes and pupuls by: dilating them
Parasympathetic effects bl vessels/skin: no
Parasympathetic effects bl vessels/muscles: no
Parasympathetic effects heart by: decreasing rate and force
Parasypmathetic effects lung and bronchi by: constricting and shallow breaths
Parasympathetic effects peristalsis by: increasing it
Parasympathetic effects eye and pupils by: constricting them
Organs with sympathetic stimulation only: Adrenal Medulla, Erector Pili Muscles (hair), Sweat Glands, Smooth muscles of arterioles that supply peripheral blood vessels for vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure
Alpha brain waves: quiet, awake, disappears in sleep
Beta brain waves: specific mental activity or tension REM
Delta brain waves: deep sleep, infancy, brain disorders, non-REM
Theta brain waves: disappoinment, frustration, normal in children, stress in adults. seen in second and third stage of sleep, non-REM
Kidney Circulation renal artery -> interlobar -> interlobular -> arcuate -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus
Glomerulus filters the blood, no active transport, no protein passes through, glucose goes through
Tubular reabsorption and secretion from the glomerular filtrate into the peritubular capillaries acts by: diffusion or active transport
proximal tubule maximum glucose reabsorbed, 65% of water reabsorbed, most Na+, Cl- and glucose reabsorbed. All amino acids reabsorbed
Loop of Henle: Desecnding limb osmotic pressure moves water into the interstitial tissue thus concentrating the urine
Loop of Henle: Ascending limb NaCl can pass through the tubule into the tissues, but here it is impermeable to water
Distal tubule Na+, Cl- and water are reabsorbed, K+ and H+ secreated. Aldosterone has the most influence.
Collecting duct hormone control of water, reabsorption of filtrate, ADH makes collecting ducts more or less permeable to water
Peritubular capillaries: colloid osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure promote reabsorption here
Urine flows from: collecting ducts-> pyramids-> minor calyces-> major calyces-> renal pelvis-> ureter-> bladder-> urethra
Water is impermeable where? ascending loop
Aldosterone has most influence where? distal tubule
What has hormonal contral of H2O? collecting duct
Where does ADH play a role? collecting duct
Where does osmotic pressure promote reabsorption? peritubular capillaries
renin produced by the JG cells in response to: a decrease in blood pressure, and a decrease in blood volume (detected by afferent arteriole). Released into the blood
Angiotensinogen in the blood, produced by liver
renin cleaves angiotensinogen angiotensin I
ACE in lungs; angiotensin converting enzyme; converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Angiotensin II stimulates thirst, constricts blood vessels, stimulates ADH, stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone.
Aldosterone secreted from the zona glomerulosa, reabsorbs sodium and water, excretes K+ from distal tubule
ADH has greatest affect on collecting duct by: increasing H2O absorption which increases blood volume thus diluting Na+ concentration and increasing blood pressure
P wave atrial depolarization
QRS complex ventrical depolarization (covers atrial repolarization)
T wave repolarization of the ventricle
U wave repolarization of papillary muscle
Primary Heart Block elongation of PR interval
Secondary Heart Block winkbocks phenomena= elongation of P-R til 2 atrial depolarizations show up
Complete Heart Block no QRS wave (bundle branch)
Digestion in the Mouth Ptylinogen-ptyin (salivary amalase): breaks down starch
Digestion in the Stomach Chief Cell,Parietal Cells, and Mucosa Cells
Chief Cells Pepsiogen-pepsin: breaks down proteins in stomach
Parietal cells HCl-activates pepsinogen, Intrinsic Factor-for B12
Muscosa Cells Gastrin-increase gastric secretions
Digestion in Small intestine Secretin, Enterogastrone, Enterokinase, Cholecystokinin
Secretin Increase pancreatic secretion of amylase and lipase and buffers acid chyme from stomach
Enterogastrone Closes pyloric sphincter in response to fats (lipids)
Enterokinase converts-trypsinogen to trypsin and chymotrypsiogen to chymotrypsin (breaks down proteins)
Cholecystokinin Causes gallbladder to release bile and closes pyloric sphincter, stops action of gastrin in stomach
Parathyroid Gland PTH: takes calcium out of bone and puts it into blood. Effected by low blood calcium levels
Thyroid Gland Calcitonin: Takes calcium out of blood and puts it into bone. Effected by high blood calcium levels
Adrenal Cortex Aldosterone: mineralocorticoid, from zona glomerulosa, saves sodium, gets rid of potassium. Effected by high potassium levels. Secreted in response to angiotension II
Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine/Adrenalin and Norepinephrine/Noradrenalin: raises blood sugar from the liver
Ovaries (female secondary sex characteristics) Progesterone: prepares endometrium for implantation. Estrogen: Maintains endometrial lining of uterus
Testes Testosterone: male sex characteristics
convergence and spatial synapse bunch of nerves firing on 1 cell body
temporal synapse 1 nerve firing a bunch of times
Divergence synapse 1 neuron firing on many cell bodies
Increase physical activity blood flow in brain remains constant
depolarization becomes more positive
repolarization resting; prevent diffusion of ions
action potential starts at: axon hillock
passive filling resting/diastole
cortisol increase protein breakdown
progesterone secreted durin 2nd and 3rd trimester
C-fibers burning achy pain
Na/K/ATP-ase Pump 3 Na in, 2 K out
Amount of calcium determines: amount of neurotransmitter released
monosynaptic reflex transmission stretch
alcohol inhibits ADH
decreased sympathetic: decreaed peripheral atrial pressure
increased aortic pressure: decrease stroke volume
metabolic acidosis: PCO2 high than normal
Pain=algesia free nerve endings, tickle, itch, temperature. Greatest number: tip tongue, lips, genitalia, finger tips. Least number: upper arm, buttock, trunk.
Mechanoreceptors end bulbs of Krause for pressure (encapsulated)
Temperature perception Corpuscles of Ruffini for pressure. Temperature distinction between 2-5 degrees. (encapsulated and multi-branched)
Muscle Spindles Stretch (dynamic and static)
Pacinian Corpuscles Pressure, vibration (encapsulated)
Meissner's Corpuscles Fine touch (Dorsal Columns), located on non-hairy skin (encapsulated)
Merkel's Discs General touch (Anterior Spinothalamic Tract), also hair follicles, "Iggo Dome Receptors" when grouped
Excitatory Transmitters norepinephrine, glutamate, nitric oxide
Inhibitory Transmitters norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, glycine, GABA
Locus ceruleus nucleus (pons) "adrenal gland of the brain"- epinephrine
blood clotting injury, constriction, platelet plug, clot, repair
Sarcoplasmic reticulum cell membrane in skeletal and cardiac muscle
T-tubules send action potential into muscle, calcium release
H band myosin ONLY
Cerebral Sensory Areas: somatosensory, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, Wernicke's
Somatosensory postcentral gyrus (parietal lobe)
Visual Occipital lobe striate cortex, calcarine fissure
Auditory Superior temporal gyrus (Heschl's gyrus)
Gustatory Base of postcentral gyrus
Olfactory Medial temporal lobe
Wernicke's "Receptive" portion of language (superior temporal lobe)
Cerebral Motor Areas Motor, premotor, Broca's
Motor precentral gyrus (frontal lobe)
Premotor skilled movements (anterior to motor cortex)
Broca's "Expressive" portion of language (inferior posterior frontal lobe)
Diencephalon Thalamus & Hypothalamus
Thalamus Main relay between the cortex & spinal cord
Hypothalamus Controls ANS and endocrine system, controls body temperature, food intake, thirst & aggression. Helps maintain waking state and sleep. Limbic system (between cerebral cortex & hypothalamus) assists with the control of emotional behavior, drive & memory.
Brain Stem & Hind Brain Cerebellum, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
Cerebellum coordination of muscle contractions
Midbrain superior colliculi coordinates eyeball movement in response to visual stimuli. Inferior colliculi coordinates head and trunk in response to auditory stimuli. It is the origin of CN's III, IV.
Pons Pneumotaxic and apneustic areas help control breathing & is the origin of CN's V, VI, VII, VIII
Medulla Reticular formation help control consciousness, arousal, vital reflex centers, regulates heartbeat, breathing (with pons), and blood vessel diameter. Coordinates swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and hiccupips
Origin for CN's VIII, IX, X, XI, XII Medulla
Influx of sodium depolarization
efflux of potassium repolarization
no A-P available absolute refractory
A-P available with increase potential Relative refractory
Normal heart valves: S1 closing of mitral & tricuspid (A-V valves)
Normal heart valves: S2 closing of aortic & pulmonic (semilunars)
Murmurs diastolic murmurs are the most clinically significant
an influx of Na+ causes depolarization
potassium leaving the neuron repolarization
a cell at its "resting membrane potential" polarized
closing of sodium gates depolarization
reduction in membrane potential relative to resting membrane depolarization
membrane potential becomes more negative hyperpolarization
membrane becomes more positive inside depolarization
what happens at threshold? action potential creation
what is the resting membrane potential value? -70mV
What is threshold potential value? -55mV
Immediately following an Action Potential, if a nerve cannot produce an action potential? absolute refractory period
Immediately following an Acion Potential, if a nerve can produce an action potential with increased stimulus? Relative Refractory Period
What type of nerve is related to epinephrine? adrenergic
What type of nerve is related to choline? Cholinergic
What neurotransmitter is at the myoneural junction? Acetylcholine
Parasympathetic Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine
Sympathetics use Acetylcholine where? Preganglionic
Locus ceruleus nucleus "adrenal gland of the brain" epinephrine
What part is derived from neural crest cells? Adrenal medulla
Name the cortical layers from outside in? Zona Glomerulosa, Fasciculata, & Reticularis
What part secretes androgens? Zona Reticularis
What part secretes corticosteroids? Zona Fasciculata
What does the adrenal medulla secrete? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Waht does the Zona glomerulosa secrete? Aldosterone
What part acts as a "sympathetic ganglion"? Adrenal medulla
Which cells secrete surfactant? type II (granular) pneumocytes
IRV+ ERV+ TV is called vital capacity (4800mL)
Air remaining after forceful expiration residual volume (1200mL)
muscle that accounts for 75% of inspiration volume diaphragm
surfactant serves to reduce surface tension & prevent alveolar collapse
most important extracellular buffer bicarbonate
most important intracellular buffer phosphate
most plentiful buffer protein
Pneumotaxic center prevents lung overinflation
Apneustic center prevents turn off of inspiration (keeps you breathing)
Herring-Breuer reflex respiratory stretch receptors prevents lung over-strethcing
Normal oral temperature (C & F) 37 C and 98.6 F
main source of body heat production muscle contraction
main source of body heat in infants only brown fat (high metabolic rate)
what happens to cutaneous blood vessels when cold vasoconstriction
what happens to respiration when hot increases ("panting")
main center with reflex responses activated by cold posterior hypothalamus
main center with reflex responses activated by heat anterior hypothalamus
calcitonin (1/1) blood calcium? decreases
insulin is secreted by which cells beta cells of the pancreas
salivary amylase ptyalin
where are brunner's glands located? duodenum
where does B12 absorption occur ileum
which cells release pepsinogen? chief cells of the stomach
what substance causes gall bladder contraction? cholecystokinin
who has greater compliance arteries or veins? veins (24x greater)
amount of blood pumped out per beat? stroke volume
average stroke volume 70-80 mL/min
Amount of blood pumped by the heart in time period cardiac output
cardiac output calculation stroke volume x heart rate
heat transfer as infrared rays radiation
liquid turning to vapor evaporation
heat transfer between objects conduction
heat transfer of molecules away from area of contact convection
cardiac tissue with the fastest conduction rate? purkinje fibers (4 m/s)
The SA node is AKA pacemaker
heart innervated by vagus
atrial depolarization occurs during what wave? P
Atrial repolarization occurs during what wave? QRS
Ventricular depolarization occurs during what wave? QRS
Ventricular repolarization occurs during what wave? T
Name the AV valves. mitral & tricuspid
Which AV is on the right side? tricuspid
Mitral stenosis murmur occurs during? Diastole
Name the semilunar valves? aortic & pulmonic
What happens between atrial & ventricular systole? Isovolumetric ventricle contraction
Where are the arterial circulation baroreceptors? Carotid sinus & aortic arch
the most common type of hypertension> Essential (aka primary)
afferent arteriole leads into glomerulus
efferent arteriole leads out of glomerulus
which one affects the pressure of the glomerulus? afferent
ADH lives in the collecting duct
ADH regulates Water only
Where does counter current concentration occur? Loop of Henle
Which part of the kidney does filtration? Bowman's capsule
Where is the ACE made? lungs
Angiotensin II does what to the vessels constricts
Cholinergic parasym and symp
Adrenergic symp
Contricts pupils parasym
Increases heart rate symp
Pre-acetylcholine symp
post-norepinephrine symp
decreases heart rate parasymp
alpha waves 8-13 cycles per second
Beta waves 14-25 cycles per second "asynchronous"
theta waves 4-7 cycles per second
delta waves 1-3 cycles per second, normal deep sleep
Created by: 827753675
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