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Unit One AP European

First Half of Unit One Palmer Book (chapters 1-3)

pax Romania The Roman empire kept peace, and even provided a certain justice for its many peoples. Lawyers worked on the body of principles known afterward as Roman Law.
Caesaropapsim a political system in which one person holds the powers of ruler and of pontiff. Instead, the spiritual power and the political power were held to be separate and independent.
Constantinople Constantine founded a new capital in 330 A.D. at the old Greek city of Byzantium (renamed Constantinople). Thereafter the Roman Empire had two capitals, and this led to the eventual disintegration of the empire.
"Great Schism of East and West" It divided the Christian world into the Latin or Roman Catholic and the Greek Orthodox churches. The East and West continued to drift apart.
Three-field system New way of using land, three parts were rotated from year to year, so soil exhaustion would not occur and led to increase of food production.
Feudalism Was intricate and diverse, but in essence it was a means of carrying on some kind of government on a local basis where no organized state existed. The lord and vassal relation was one of reciprocal duties.
Guilds Merchants and craftsmen formed associations called guilds, whose masters supervised the affairs of a specific trade or craft. They provided that work should be done by reliable and experienced persons,and also provided a means of vocational education.
The Three Estates "estates of the realm"; the first and highest estate was the clergy, the second was the landed or noble class, and the third was pretty much everyone else.
"Lay Investiture" The practice by which a layman, the emperor, conferred upon the new bishop the signs of his spiritual authority, the ring and the staff.
Indiviualism The moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that stresses "the moral worth of the individual". They promote the exercise of one's goals and value independence and oppose external interference upon one's own interests by society.
Humanism An approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns, attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
Calvinsim Another Protestant Christianity created by John Calvin, who believed in predestination.
Lutheranism A Protestant Christianity created by Martin Luther during the Reformation, and it quickly spread throughout Europe.
Phillip II Leader of Spain from 1556 to 1598, who saw Spain as a leader of European Catholicism, and had high ambition, and led Spain in active participation in religious wars.
The Edict of Nantes Granted to every seigneur, or noble who was also a manorial lord, the right to hold Protestant services in his own household.
Created by: Anna Sikkink