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The Urinary System18

Chaper 18 Urinary system

QuestionAnswer
What does the Urinary system consist of? 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder and Urethra
Urine gets rid of waste products in the form of cells, what does it get rid of? Urea, Creatinine and Ammonia
How do teh kideney regulate blood volume? By excreting ofr conserving water.
How do the kideys regulate electrolites excreting or conserving water.
How do the kidney regulate Ph? By excreting or conserving ions
Where are the kidneys located? Superior posterior abdominal cavity under the lower ribs on both sides of the spine.
What are they embedded in for protection? Adipose tissue
What is the covering that holds the kidneys in place? Renal fascia
what is the medial indentation where structures enter and exit the kidney the Hilus
What are the 2 structural sares (internal) of the kidney. Renal cortex, Renal medulla, Renal Pelvis
Where is the Renal cortex located? The outer layer
In the Renal Cortes there is Renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules of the _______? Nephrons
In the Renal Medulla there are Renal pyramids, what are they The are loops of Henle and the collecting tubules of the nephron also the papilla.
Where is the renal pelvis located? in a space that is a widened area of teh ureturs.
The calyces of the renal pelive do what to the papillae of teh renal pyramids? encloses
The nepron is a functional unit of the kidney true
There are 1 million nephrons in each kidney true
The nephron forms urine from the blood True
what are 2 major parts of the nephron? The renal corpusclesand blood vessels.
In reh renal corpuscles what is teh capillary network that starts from an afferant arteriole and ends as efferant arteriole Glomerulus
Efferent arteriole is smaller or larger the the afferent to increase the blood pressure in the glomerulus? smaller
where is the Bowmans capsule (aka glomerular) located? surrounds the glomerulus
How many layers does the Bowmans capsule have 2
what is the inner layer of teh bowmans capsule made of? podo cytes
what to the podo cytes in the bowmans capsule cover the glomerular capillaries
Gaps make the glomerular capillaries highly _______? perimable
The outer layer of Bowmans capsule is the expanded end of what the renal tubule
The space between teh 2 layers of teh Bowmans capsule contains what Ranal filtrate
The filtrate eventually becomes what urine
what is the continuation of the outer glomerular capsule the renal tubule
what are the 3 parts of the renal tubual the Proximal convoluted tubual (cortex), the Loop of Henle (aka Lupe of teh Nephron)(medulla), and the distal convoluted tubule (cortex)
The renal tubules are covered in what which arises from efferent arteroles partublar capillaries
The distal tubules of several nephrons empty into what a collecting tubule
Several collecting tubules coverge to form a what? Papillary duct
How many major process are in urine formation 3
what is the first major process in urine formation glomerular filtration
what is glomerular filtration? blood pressure forces plasma, dissolved substances and small proteins (collectively called renal filtrate) out of glomeruli into Bowman capsules ( low pressure)
Renal filtrate contains waste products and useful non-waste products they are similar to plasma except what they have no large proteins
Glomerular filtration rate- the amount of reanal filtrate is formed in how long a minute
Tubular reabsorption from the renal tubules to the _________ Peritubular
what is the percent of filtrate is reabsorption in tubual reabsorption 99%
65% of teh reabsorption takes place in teh what promixal convoluter tubles
The rest of filetate is reabsorbed in what and where In the Lupe of Henle and in the distal convoluted tubules
What are the mechanisms of reabsorption avtive transport, passive transport,osmosis,and Pinocytosis
in avtive transprot it uses what to actively transport useful materials from the filtrate back to the blood. ATP
Does passive transport require energy no
osmosis is waster follows soultes true
what is active process where the larger molecules are engulfed by the cell membrane of the proximal convoulted tubule Pinocytosis
What is tubular secretion active transport from the pertubual capillaries to the renal tubuales
what are the hormones that affect water reabsorption aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and antiduretic hormone
Does aldosterone in crease or decrease the reabsorption of Na+ and the excretion of K+ and blood pressure Increases
Does atrial natriuretic peptide increase or decrease the reabsorption of Na+ and blood pressure decreases
does antidiuretic hormone increase or decrease the reabsorption of H2o and blood pressure increases
kidneys are the main factor in blood pH true
3 other kidney functions are Secretion of Renin, Secretion of erythropoietin, activation of VIT D
the secretion of Renin leads to the realease of what angiotensin II and aldrosterone.
what does the secretion of erthropoietin do stimulates RBC production
Other forms of Vit D are converted to what thisis the most active for of vit D to calcitrol
Uriters are what that fo from each hilus to posteroinferior urinary bladder paired tubes
smoothe muscle in urters move urine with peristalsis
as teh bladder fills it compresses the inferior urter to prevent what back flow
the urinary bladder is a muscualr sac that is located below the peritoneum posterior to the pubic bone
how much urine can a bladder hold 800ml
what permits the expansion of the bladder transitional epithelium
what is the shape of the destusor muscle sphere shaped
what is the detrusor muscle an involuntary muscle layer superficial to epitheliumj.i
what is the internal urethral sphincter fibers of the detrusor
is teh unternal urethral sphincter voluntary or involunary involuntary
____________ is a single tube from teh bladder to vagina or penis Urethra
the external urethral sphincter is made of what Skelatal muscle on the pelvis floor
is the external urethral sphincter involunatry or voluntary voluntary
the Urethra is longer in men true
what are the parts of a male urethra prostatic urethra, membranars, cavernous uretha, they carry urine and semen
What is another name for urination micturition or voiding
is urination a spinal cord reflex yes
urination reflex is stimulated by the stretching of what muscle destrusor
at what point does the sensation to urinate when the bladder has 200-400 ml
what is the amount of urine output in a day about 2 liters
Oligura is what descrease urination
what causes oliguria sweating and decreased fluid intake
what is polyuria increased urination
what causes polyuria diabetes, excess fluid intake, alcohol, caffine, diuretics
the yellow byproduct of bile breakdown in what urochrome
when urochrome is concentrated is it lighter or darker in color darker
if urochrome is diluted is it lighter of darker in color lighter
what clor should freshly voided urine be should be clear not cloudy
what is specific gravity a measure of dissolved materials
if the specific gravity is higher it is more concentrated
if the specific gravity is lower is it diluted
What is the pH balance in urine 4.6-8.0 avg is 6
what is normal urine constituents 95% water, 5% excess salts and waste products
what does nitrogenous waste contain nitrogen
what is formed in the liver from breakdown of AA"s Urea
Creatinine if breakdown of creatine phosphate in what the muscles
what is the breakdown of nucleic acids uric acid
urobilin is from hemoglobin of what dead RBCs
Created by: 1356095555