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BIO 220 Final Exam 2

Types of arteries Elastic/Conducting (aorta), Muscular/Distributing (deliver blood to body organs), Arterioles (serve at tissue level)
Know the conditions which can be expected with polycythemia Enlarged spleen, blood clots, blood doping
Explain why the erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude At higher altitude, less oxygen so body makes more RBCs to maximize oxygen use
Know correct development sequence of an RBC Hemocytoblast-->Proerythroblast-->erythroblast-->Normoblast-->Reticulocyte-->Erythrocyte
Natural anticoagulant found in basophils is______ Heparin
The immediate response to blood vessel injury is _______ Vascular spasms
Know the regulatory functions of blood Normal pH, carrying hormones, temp regulation
Know the protective functions of blood Clot formation, prevents infections
Blood volume restorers include Ringer's solution, normal saline, electrolyte solution
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________anemia Pernicious
Leukocytes are different from RBCs in that they have ___________ Nucleus
Which organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production? Kidneys
The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________ Fetal hemoglobin
Normal range of hemoglobin _______ 35-45
Name the normal plasma proteins Albumin, Immunoglobulins (alpha, beta, gamma), fibrinoen
Thromboembolic disorders are characterize by ________ Embolus formation
Know the location of followings: Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium Epicardium (outermost layer), myocardium (middle layer), endocardium (innermost layer)
Know the path of electricity through the heart SA node --> AV node --> AV bundle --> Purkinje fibers
Valve located between RV and Pulmonary trunk, prevents backflow Pulmonary valves
Valve located between RV and aorta, prevents backflow Aortic valve (semilunar)
Located between LA and LV, prevents backflow Mitral (bicuspid) valve
Located between RA and RV, prevents backflow Tricuspid valve
Normal heart sounds are caused by _________ Closing of heart valves
The semilunar valves are ______ when ventricles are in diastole. Closed
Explain why the left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall Left side of heart pushes blood farther distance through body
Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block AV node
The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates _______ Atrial depolarization
The _____ carry blood to capillaries in the myocardium Coronary arteries
Length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells is longer than the same skeletal muscle cells to _______ Prevents titanic contractions (could stop the heart)
What happens to the heart rate if the vagal nerves to the heart were cut? HR increases by 25 bpm
Which blood vessels receive blood during ventricular systole? Pulmonary trunk and aorta
Isovolumetric contraction refers to the short period of time during which ventricles are ________ Closed
Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is _____ than in the systemic circulation Lower
The three main factors influencing blood pressure are Cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume
The chemicals which help regulate blood pressure are ADH and ANP
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium? Tunica intima
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________ Capillaries
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called Hepatic portal circulation
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the _______ Muscular arteries
This process provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure Renal regulation
Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation? Tunica media
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called _______ Arterioles
Modified capillaries of liver that are lined with phagocytes are called ________ Sinusoids
Factors that aid venous return include Activities of skeletal muscles, pressure changes in thorax, venous valves
A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________ Right side of head and neck, upper right arm
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to_______ Changes in arterial pressure
Receives lymph from most of body Thoracic duct
Cleaning organ of blood Spleen
AKA interstitial fluid Lymph
Filter lymph fluid Lymph nodes
Patches in small intestine, provide immune function Peyer's Patches
The function of type II pneumocytes is to _______ Produce and secrete surfactant
The patency of the trachea is due to _______ Cartilage rings
Intrapulmonary pressure is the _______ Pressure within the lungs
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by _____law Boyle's
The pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual components of the gas mixture Dalton's Law
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________ Reducing surface tension
Created by: NCBuckeye11



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