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BIO 220 Final Exam

Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex Addison's Disease
Hypersecretion of growth hormone after puberty Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of insulin Diabetes mellitus
Hyposecretion of growth hormone Pituitary Dwarfism
Autoimmune disorder of thyroid Grave's Disease
Hypersecretion of adrenal cortex Cushing's Disease
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone in adults Myxedema
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone in infants Cretinism
Thyroid Major regulator of metabolism
Adrenal medulla and cortex Involved with fight or flight, on top of kidneys
Hypophysis Stimulates other endocrine glands
Parathyroid Control calcium and potassium
Pancreas Produces hormones that regulate glucose
Thymus Where T-cells mature, part of immune system, shrinks as you grow older
The antagonistic hormones that regulate blood Calcitonin and Parathyroid
The hormones that regulate blood sugar levels are ____ and ______ Insulin and Glucagon
The ____ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin Beta Cells
The _____ are the pancreatic islets cells that produce glucagon Alpha Cells
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of ________ Sodium
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the _______ Thyroid
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of _______ Cortisol
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as _______ Down regulation
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________ The presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
Thyroid hormone enters target cells in a manner similar to ________ steroid hormones (or lipid-soluble) because both diffuse easily into target cells
The major targets of growth hormone are _______ Bones and skeletal muscles
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________ Targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts (or osteoblasts)
Leptin is secreted by ________ Adipocytes
Know the mechanism of calcium homeostasis Thyroid prodces calcitonin---> calcium goes back into bones. Parathyroid produces PTH --> Increases calcium
What is the function of FSH in males? Along with testosterone, produces sperm
Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs is ____ Erythropoietin (EPO)
The hormone regulating electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is _____ Aldosterone
Name hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) FSH, LH, GH, ACTH, PRL, TSH
Name the steroid-based hormones Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone, Aldosterone
Name the categories of endocrine gland stimuli Humoral, hormonal, neural
Know structural and functional characteristics of WBCs Granulocytes: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes, Monocytes
Multi-lobed nucleus, act as phagocytes for bacteria, largest number of leukocytes Neutrophil
Bi-lobed nucleus, red granules, kill parasites Eosinophil
Bi-lobed nucleus, Purple/Black granules, release histamine under allergy attacks(heparin) Basophil
Spherical nucleus, Pale blue cytoplasm, attacks foreign cells Lymphocyte
U-shaped nucleus, gray/blue cytoplasm, largest size of leukocytes, develop into phagocytes Monocyte
What are Eicosanoids Inflammation mediators Ex: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Prostacyclins
Understand structural and functional characteristics of hypophysis Anterior=true gland (adenohypiphysis), makes and releases hormones Posterior=nueral tissue, stores and releases hormones
The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ______ Hypophyseal portal system
The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary gland is through the axons
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ______ It is a storage area only
Normal development of the immune response is due to hormones produced by____ Thymus
LH is also referred to as a _____ Gonadotropin
ADH secretion will increase when blood pressure Decreases
The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is _______ Gluconeogenesis
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the ______ Thyroid
The presence of an exophthalmic goiter is associated with ______ Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism)
What characteristics are associated with hyposecretion of thyroid hormones? Cushing's Disease (weight gain, fatigue, buffalo hump, moon face)
Decreases plasma calcium Calcitonin
Regulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormone TSH
Stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones ACTH
Stimulates milk production Prolactin
Promotes development of T-cells Thymosin
Increase in WBCs Leukemia
Too few RBCs Anemia
Too many RBCs Polycythemia
Air or clot blocking vessel Embolism
Any disorder of RBCs Erythrocytosis
Chemical components of the Hemoglobin molecule 4 peptide chains (2 alpha+2 beta)=heme molecule
Functions of blood Regulation, protection, maintenance
Blood types Universal donor: O- Universal Recipient: AB+
Organs regulating RBC production Bone marrow, kidney, liver
The parent cell for all formed elements of blood is _____ Hemocytoblast
The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called____ Diapedesis
How would an increased in amount of heparin affect blood clothing? blood thinner and doesn't clot very well
What is the purpose of RhoGam injections? Keeps Rh- mother's body from attacking Rh+ baby
In what situations might Rh incompatibility develop? Rh- mother, Rh+ baby
Different types of capillaries Continuous (brain and skin), fenestrated (kidneys), sinusoids (liver)
Created by: NCBuckeye11



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