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Army 1st Aid

What Army manual covers first aid for soldiers? FM 4-25.11
What is first aid? It's the first care given to injured soldiersbefore medical personnel are available.
What are the four life-saving steps of first aid? 1. Clear the airway and restore breathing. 2. Stop the bleeding. 3.Treat and dress the wounds to prevent infection. 4. Prevent shock.
What are the three types of bleeding and how are they recognized? Arterial: Blood is bright red and spurts with the heartbeat. Venous: Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream. Capillary: Blood oozes from the wound.
How do you stop bleeding? 1. Apply a field dressing. 2. Apply manual pressure. 3. Elevate the injured limb. 4. Apply a pressure dressing. 5. Apply a tourniquet.
Whose first aid dressing should be used on the casualty? Use the casualty's bandage.
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding? As a last resort when everything else has failed to stop the bleeding, or when an arm or leg has been cut off.
What are the four types of burns? Electrical, thermal, chemical and laser.
What is the single most common cause of airway blockage? The tougue.
Where is a tourniquet applied? Around the limb, between the injury and the heart, two to four inches above the wound. And, never place tourniquet directly on a joint.
How tight should a tourniquet be? Until bright red bleeding has stopped.
What must be done to indicate a casualty has a tourniquet? Mark the casualty's forehead with a "T" and note the time of application.
When should you loosen or remove a tourniquet? You should never loosen or remove a tourniquet.
Define manual pressure? Firm pressure on the dressing for five to 10 minutes.
What is HIV? Human Immunovirus.
What should be applied if bleeding continues after applying field dressing? Apply a pressure dressing after manual pressure, and elevation of the injury.
What are two types of artificial respiration? The mouth-to-month method, and the back pressure-arm lift method.
Should a casuality be given water to drink? Casualties should not eat or drink.
What are the signs of shock? Cool, pale and damp skin (clammy skin); confusion; nausea or vomiting; restlessness or nervousness; loss of blood; thrist; fast breathing; fainting spells; excessive perspiration; bloched or bluish skin-especially around the mouth or lips.
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position? When there is a head injury, abdominal wound or unsplintted fractured leg(s).
What is the treatment for shock? Move to cover if possible. Lay the casulty on their back; elevate the legs; loosen clothing at neck, waist, ankles and feet; prevent chilling or overheating; keep the casualty calm.
What is the measure for checking tightness of bandages? Two fingers should slip under the bandage.
What items should never be used as a tourniquet? Wire or string.
What procedure is used to restore the heartbeat? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
When it becomes necessary to give CPR what is the ratio of pumps to breaths for a one-man rescue and a two-man rescue? One man-15 pumps/2 breaths, two man- 5 pumps/1 breath.
When may resuscitation measures be stopped? 1. When a doctor tells you to stop. 2. When you are relieved by others. 3. When you can't physically continue. 4. When the casuality starts breathing on ther own.
What is the correct method of artificial respiration used during an NBC attack, and why? The back presure-arm lift because during an NBC attack both of you will be masked.
When is the casulty's clothing not removed in order to expose a wound? When clothing is stck to the wound, or in an NBC environment.
What is unique about type "O" blood? It can be used by anybody.
Why should wounds be treated as soon as possible? To control the bleeding, and protect the wound from contamination by germs.
What is a heat injury? General dehydration of the body brought on by loss of water and salt through activity in the heat.
What are the three categories of heat injuries? Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Decribe the signs of heat cramps? Muscle cramps of the legs, arms or abdomen, excessive sweating.
Describe the treatment for heat cramps? Move the casualty into shade, loosen clothing and give cool water.
Name the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion? Pale, moist and cool, clammy skin, headache, muscle cramps,excessive sweating, weakness, nausea, dizziness, cramps, urge to defecate, chills, rapid breathing, confusion, tingling of the hands and/or feet.
How should heat exhaustion be treated? Move the casualty to a cool, shaded area, loosen any tight fitting clothing, have him or her drink a canteen of cool water, elevate the legs and monitor.
Decribe the siogns and symptoms of heat stroke? The person stops sweating, his or her skin is dry and hot, the pulse is fast, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and mental confusion, weakness, seizures.
How should heat stroke be treated? Immerse the casulty in the cooldest water available or remove the clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport to the nearest medical facility.
What are the two most common types of fractures? Open (compound), and closed (simple).
What is an open fracture? A broken bone that breaks through the skin.
What should be done first for an open fracture? Stop the bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms of fractures? Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Why is a fracture immobilized? To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels and nerves. Doing this reduces pain and helps prevent and control shock.
What is shock and why is it dangerous? Shock is inadequate blood flow to the vital organs and tissues. If shock is uncorrected it may result in death even though the injury or conditions causing shock appear to be less then fatal.
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures? Splint them where they lie.
What does the key word "COLD" mean in cold weather protection? COLD stands keeping it Clean, avoiding Overheating, wearing Loose clothing in layers, and keep it Dry.
Name the five types of cold and wet weather injuries? Frostbite: actual freezing of a part of the body. Hypothermia: lowering of body temperature. Immersion foot/trench foot: occurs between 32 and 50 degrees. Chilblain: mild form of frostbite. Snow blindness: pain in and around the eyes.
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite? Page 25 & 26
What is the treatment for frostbite? Page 26
What precautions should be followed with frostbite? Page 27
What is hypothermia? The body loses heat faster then it can produce.
What are two types of hypothermia? Mild and severe.
Describe the symptoms of hypothermia. Casualty is cold. Shivering stops, but the body temperature is low. Consciousness may be altered. Movement is uncoordinated. Shock and coma may set in as a result of low body temperatures.
What is the treatment for hypothermia? Page 28
What are the signs and symptoms of immersion foot? Affected parts are cold, numb and painless. Then the parts may become hot, with burning and shooting pains. In the advanced stage skin is pale with a bluish tint, pulse decreases. Blistering swelling, heat, hemorrhages and gangrene may follow.
How is trench foot/immersion foot acquired? It results from fairly long exposure of the feet to wet and cold (50 to 32 degrees fahrenheit). Inactive feet in damp or wet socks and boots or tightly laced boots which impair circulation can also cause it.
How is trench food/immersion foot treated? Rewarm the injury gradually by exposing it to warm air. Do not massage it. Do not moisten skin. Do not apply heat or ice. Protect the affected area from further trauma. Keep the injury dry. Avoid walking. Seek medical treatment.
What are the symptoms of chilblain? The affected areas are red, swollen, hot, tender, and ithy. Continued exposure will lead to blisters or bleeding skin lesions.
Describe the treatment for chilblain? The affected area usually responds to locally applied rewarming with body heat. Don't rub or massage this area.
What is snow blindness? The effect that glare from an ice field or snowfield has on the eyes.
Will snow blindness occur only when the sun is shining? No. It can happen in cloudy weather, also.
What are the symptoms of snow blindness? A sensation of grit or sandy eyes, pain in and over the eye which feels worse when eyeball moves. Other signs include watering, redness, headache, and pain on exposure to light.
How should snow blindness be treated? Blindfolding or covering eyes with dark cloth which stops eye movement. Rest, protect from further exposure to light. Seek medical care.
Is snow blindness permanent? No. The condition usually heals in a few days without permanent damage.
What is the most common condition which requires first aid assistance? The open wound.
How would you treat a sucking chest wound? Cover the area with plastic to stop the flow of air. Bandage the wound and lay the casualty on the wound if possible, or have the person sit up.
How much water should be given to a person with an abdominal wound? None.
What is the best one man carry that can be used for transporting a casualty long distance? The pistol belt carry.
Describe the three degrees of burns. 1st degree burn-reddening skin. 2nd degree burn-blistering. 3rd degree burn-charred flesh.
What is the most important thing to do in case of a serious burn? Keep the burn clean and apply a dry sterile dressing.
If you found a casualty with a hole in his or her chest what would be the first thing to do? Check the back for an exit wound.
What is an indication of a sucking chest wound? Frothy fluid bursting with each breath.
Would you elevate a patient's legs if he had a head injury? No.
Should large amounts of water be given to a burn victim? No. One quart per hour is sufficient.
What is self aid? Emergency treatment applied by oneself.
What are four life saving steps? 1. Clear the airway. 2. Stop the bleeding. 3. Protect the wound. 4. Treat for shock.
What is the first aid for snake bites? 33
What is the best position for a casualty with a stomach wound? On his back with knees flexed.
What is the first aid for bee stings? 34
When are snakes most active? Durning the period from twilight to daylight.
Can all snakes swim? All species of snakes can swim.
Should any medication or cream be put on a burn? No.
Should unbroken blisters be opened? They should be protected and allowed to drain naturally unless it is in an area where friction is going to cause it to break open.
How should blisters be treated? 1. Wash the area with soap and water. 2. Sterilize a needle. 3. Open blister by sticking it at the lower edge. 4. Drain the blister by pressing it and removing the fluid with a clean cloth or gauze. 5. Apply a bandage.
How are open blisters treated? 1. Cleanse the area with soap and water. 2. Apply a bandage.
What are the symptoms of skin reactions to poison ivy, poison sumac or poison oak? Redness, swelling, inching, rashes or blisters (secondary infection may occur when blisters break), burning sensation and general headaches and fever.
How is poison oak, poison sumac or poison ivy treated? 36
What is an STD? Sexually transmitted disease.
What does AIDS stand for? Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
What causes AIDS? The HIV virus.
Is there presently a cure for AIDS? No.
Give two distinguishing characteristics of a non-poisonous snake. Oval-shaped head and round pupils.
How can you identify a poisonous snake? The have small deep pits between the nostrils and eyes on each side of the head.
Name the four poisonous snakes found in the U.S.? Rattlesnakes, copperheads, water moccasins, and coral snakes.
Give two examples of pit vipers. Rattlesnakes, bushmasters, copperheads, fer-de-lance, Malayan pit vipers and water moccasins.
What does PTSD stand for? Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Name four lines of the nine-line medevac request? 37-1, 37-2
Is a Camel Spider bite poisonous? No. Camel Spiders are not venomous. However... their bites can easily pierce human skin. If the bite if the bite is left untreated in may become infected.
What are some common diseases one could contract when performing disaster relief missions? Malaria, cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV.
Created by: r.burns
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