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History WWII - ColdW

History of Europe between end of WWI and Cold War

What is the Beer Hall putsch? November 9, 1923 an attempted armed overthrow of the local authorities in Munich, Germany. The plan was hatched in one of Germany's beer halls. Adolf Hitler was jailed and charged with high treason as a result.
What is a putsch? A plotted revolt or attempt to overthrow a government, escpecially one that depbends on suddeness and speed.
Who were the Black Shirts? Benito Mussolini's band of thugs, who used force to intimidate all opposition to the Italian Fascist Party.
Nuremberg Trials A series of trials held by the victorious Allied forces of World War II, for the prosecution of prominent members of the defeated Nazi Germany, were held in the city of Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany, in 1945–46.
Falangists Fascist supporters of Francisco Franco, political party called the blue shirts.
Fascism The word was first used by the political party founded by Mussolini, describes a dictator believing in suppressing revolts by any means necessary.
Lend-Lease Agreements The US guaranteed to supply Britain and eventually the Soviet all needed military supplies from America, with payment postponed until after the war ended.
Lateran Pacts Pope and Mussolini settle long standing issues of disagreement, the Vatican state was created, italy made financial payment for papal states, Catholicism is states religion.
Kellogg-Briand Pact An agreement signed on August 27, 1928, by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy. It outlawed war as an instrument of national policy.
Potsdam Conference 1945 - Stalin, Truman, Atlee attended this international conference. President announces that he has a weapon of mass destruction here.
Yalta Conference 1945 - Big three attended, agenda was post war Germany. Soviets had pushed Germany back into thier own country.
Casablanca Conference 1943 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Degal, Giraud came, Stalin busy defending Stalingrad. Casablanca Declaration called for allies to seek the unconditional surrender from the axis powers.
Teheran Conference 1943 - Big three - Churchill, Roosevelt, first meeting with Stalin, Stalin asked when allies were going to attack on the western front. Discussed Turkey coming into the war and declaring war on Japan.
Cairo Conference November 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Kai Shek (Chinese leader) addressed Japan, they should be stripped of all land they had acquired since WWI.
Francisco Franco Francisco Franco led the Nationalists of Spain in revolt against the Republicans. Upon his victory in 1939, Franco became an oppressive dictator, a position he maintained until 1975.
Reichstag A house in German Parliament
Nuremberg Laws Stripped and separated Jews of thier civil rights and from German citizens. Defined Jews not as a religious beliefs but as a matter of ancestry.
Atlantic Charter Roosevelt and Churchill agreed upon and issued this. It had nine points, one was two defeat Germany.
Munich Pact Where Hitler is appeased by being given Sudentland.
Enabling Act Gave the executive branch of the government the power to pass laws without the Reichstag.
ghetto Transition area where people were held until they were transferred. Warsaw was the most popular had largest jewish population.
Joseph Goebbels Minister of information in Germany, used all forms of propoganda. Perfected technique "The big lie"
Kristallnacht The Nazis broke windows and tore apart Jewish businesses and synagogues, foreshadowing the eventual attempt at comprehensive destruction of the Jewish race.
Night of the Long Knives 1934- Most of the leadership of the SS shot the SA on this night to help Hitler's rise to power.
Locarno Treaties 1925 Signed and intended to assuage French fears of resurgent German aggression. They included guarantees on the French-German and Belgian-German borders promising to provide military assistance to the victim of any violation of peace along those borders.
League of Nations Contained 4 parts - League of assembly, League Council, World Court, and Specialized Agencies.
Neville Chamberlain The prime minister of Britain from 1937 to 1940, who advocated a policy of appeasement toward the territorial demands of Nazi Germany. This appeasement policy essentially turned a blind eye to Germany’s 1938 annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland.
Dwight D. Eisenhower A U.S. Army general who held the position of supreme Allied commander in Europe. Eisenhower was perhaps best known for his work in planning Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Europe.
Benito Mussolini Fascist prime minister who came to power in 1922 and ruled Italy as an absolute dictator. Was an ally with Hitler during WWII.
Appeasement The British and French policy of conceding to Adolf Hitler’s territorial demands prior to the outbreak of World War II. The policy enabled Hitler to systematically take over the territories of several neighboring countries.
Who were the Allied Powers during WWII? Britain, US, France, Soviet Union
Anschluss Chancellor Adolf Hitler’s doctrine of German political union with Austria, which effectively enabled Germany to annex that nation in March 1938.
Axis Powers Collective term for Germany, Italy, and Japan’s military alliance
Who were the S.A.? In German, Schutzstaffel (“protection detachment”), the elite German paramilitary unit. Originally formed as a unit to serve as Hitler’s personal bodyguards, they grew and took on the duties of an elite military formation.
Operation Overlord The code name for the Allied invasion of France in 1944, which commenced on the beaches of Normandy and ultimately was successful in liberating France and pushing German forces back east to their own territory.
Who was the S.A.? Storm troopers, brown shirts, Nazi party's main instrument for undermining democracy and facilitating Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
Who were the Einsatzgruppen? Mobile units of the Security police and SS that followed German armies to Poland and Soviet Union. They would kill all undesirables by mass shootings and bury them in mass graves.
Sonderkommando SS detachment, and Jewish slave labor units in extermination camps that removed the bodies of those gassed for cremation or burial.
Heinrich Himmler Head of the SS and secret police, he had control over the network of Nazi concentration camps.
Treblinka Extermination camp on the Bug River the largest of the three operation reinhard killing centers.
Dachau First Nazi concentration camp in southern Germany. Incarcerated and experimented on German political prisoners, and eventually all undesireables.
Auschwitz A large complex of concentration, extermination, and labor camps in Upper Silesia.
Paul Von Hindenburg He had the misfortune of serving as the President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. He was unable to hold off the rise of the Nazi Party, and in 1933 appointed Hitler chancellor.
Ethiopia Italy, and Mussolini invade this country to acquire more colonies.
Who is Haile Selasse? Ethiopian Emperor who addressed the League of nations and warned, "It is us today, It will be you tomorrow!"
What is Lebensraum? "Living Space" Adolf Hitler’s justification for Germany’s aggressive territorial conquests in the late 1930s.
What is Mein Kampf? The book Hitler wrote while imprisoned from 1923 to 1925, ? (My Struggle) sets forth Hitler's future policies, and expounds upon the inferiority of the Jewish people to the Aryans.
Non-Aggression Pact of 1939 Germany and USSR signed this to prevent any further hostilities between the two countries.
What happened in the Poland invasion of 1939 Germany’s invasion of Poland came quickly and with overwhelming force. The attack began on September 1, 1939, with heavy air strikes followed by a rapidly advancing ground invasion. Hitler referred to the strategy as blitzkrieg, or “lightning war.”
What are some examples of facism aggression? -Japanese invaded manchuria -Italy invades Ethiopia -Germany rearms in opposition to League of Nations -Spanish Civil War - Germany:Austria & Czechoslovakia
Dawes Act called for private American banks to loan Germany the money to pay off the billions of dollars in reparations owed to France and Britain. The English and French would then use the money to pay off war debts owed to the U.S. government
Operation Barbarossa Three pronged attack of great significance due to the number of troops involved. Germany attacks Russia in 3 different directions and as a result at stalingrad they are put on defensive for first time.
Who is Hermann Goring? He was a German politician, and member of the military, and leading member of the Nazi party. At the height of his career, Hitler had made him his successor. He was sentenced to death at Nuremburg, but commited suicide by poisoning himself.
Who is Bernard Montgomery? Was given responsibility for planning the D-Day invasion in Normandy. He was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord f
Battle of midway This battle only lasted one day, due to the US having deciphered Japans codes. We were prepared and won the attack.
Weimar Republic Government attempted to set a course for democracy, It was a failure in fixing the depression.
D-Day June 6, 1944, the day on which the Allied invasion of France via the Normandy coast began.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki In 1945 Aug 6 -Hiroshima, Nagasaki - Aug 9, atomic bombs dropped on these cities in Japan.
Battle of Britain marked the first turning point in the war, as it was the first time that German forces failed to achieve a major goal. The UK Force’s strong, effective resistance caused Hitler to abandon the idea of invading Britain and to turn his attention to Russia.
Created by: cbosomw