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HA Ch. 25 (27)

The Reproductive System

both male and females reproductive systems main function is to produce offspring
the primary sex organs are the...which produce gonads (ovaries or testes)...gametes (ova or sperm) and sex hormones
all other male and female reproductive organs are accessory organs
the primary sex organs (gonads) for males are the...which lie in the... testes...scrotum to the body exterior from the testes through a system of motile sperm...accesory reproductive ducts
the accessory reproductive ducts in the male go in the following order the ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra which opens at the tip of the penis
besides the accessory duct system, other male accessory reproductive organs, the....are the... accessory glands...seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands
the accessory glands empty their secretions into the sex ducts during ejaculation
the eternal genitalia for males are the scrotum and penis
the scrotum is a sac comprised of skin and subcutaneous tissue which contains the testes or testicles
the scrotum is the... superficial and inferiorly external...abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis
the scrotum responds to changes in external temperature
under cold conditions the testes are...toward the..and the scrotal skin pulled up...warm body wall...wrinkles to increase its thickness and reduce heat loss
the effects of the sctorum are accomplished through the action of the dartos muscle(wrinkling) and the cremaster muscles(elevation)
each testis is partially surrounded by a superficial 3 layered serous sac called the tunica vaginalis and a deeper layer called the tunica albuginea
each testis is divided into many...that contain sperm producing... lobules...seminiferous tubules seperated by the tunica albuginea
the thick epithelium of the seminiferous tubule consists off spermatogenic cells, sustentacular cells
spermatogenic cells consists of spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids
spermatogenic cells are embedded in sustentacular or sertoli cells
sustentacular cells or sertoli cells are cells that are attached to the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubule capsule
sertoli cells form the blood testis barrier
the sertoli cells nourish the spermatogenic cells and move them toward the lumen
sertoli cells also secrete testicular fluid, androgen-binding protein and the hormone inhibin
posteriorly, the seminiferous tubules of each lobule converge to form a tubulus rectus or straight tubule, which conveys sperm into the rete testis
rete testis is a complex network of tiny branching tubes, which empty into efferent ductules that enter the epididymis
in the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic cells move toward the... lumen as they differentiate into sperm by a process called spermatogenesis
spermiogenesis is the differentation or maturation process in which a spermatid becomes a mature spermatozoa
spermiation is the process in which a spermatozoon becomes detached from the sertoloi cell and enters the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and marks the end of spermiogenesis
myoid cells are...cells that surround the...and help to... smooth muscle like...seminiferous tubules...squeeze sperm through the tubules and out of the testes when they contract rhythmically
interstitial cells secrete the following male sex hormones androgens, testosterone
androgens are secreted under the influence of...which is secreted from the... luteinizing hormone...pituitary gland
testosterone also maintains all male sex characteristics and sex organs
from the seminiferous tubules, motile sperm travel through the following in order tubuli recti and rete testes, then out of the testes through the efferent ductules and lastly into the duct of the epididymis
the comma shaped...hugs the.. epididymis..posterolateral surface of the testis
the duct of the epididymis where sperm gain the ability to ductus deferens....swim and fertilize
ejaculation begins with the contraction of smooth muscle in the duct of the epididymis
the ductus deferens extends from the... epididymis...ejaculator yduct...pelvic cavity
during ejaculation, the thick layers of smooth muscle in its wall...into the.... propel sperm...urethra by peristalsis
the fascia-covered...contains the... spermatic cord...ductus deferens and the testicular vessels and nerves
the urethra conducts urine and semen to the exterior
the urethra consists of three parts prostatic urethra, membraneous urethra, and spongy urethra
male accessory glands produce the bulk of...which is comprised of... semen...motile sperm and the secretions of the accessory glands and accessory ducts
seminial vesicles are...glands that are posterior to the... long, pouched...bladder
seminal vesicles secrete a...fluid that constitutes...of the ejaculation sugar-rich...60%
the prostate gland is a group of...embedded in a...which... compound glands...fibromuscular stroma...contracts during ejaculation to squeeze the prostatic secretion into the urethra
the prostate glands secretion constitutes...and is a milky fluid that contains... 1/3 volume of semen....various substancesto enhance sperm motility and enzymes that help to clot, then to liquefy, the semen
the bulbourethral glands are...sized glands which neutralize... pea...mucus into the urethra before ejaculation...traces of acidic urine and to lubricate the urethra for the passage of semen
the penis is the male organ of...and is considered as... sexual intercourse....external genitalia, along with the scrotum
the penis delivers sperm into the female reproductive system
the penis is divided into three regions root, shaft, glans
the root of the penis is the ...portion that attaches the penis to the...within the... fixed...rami of the ischia...urogenital triangle immediately inferior to the pubic symphasis
the shaft or body of the penis is the...portion that is comprised of tubular, movable..masses of erectile tissue or corpora
the glans of the penis is the...portion that surrounds the expanded distal...external urethral orifice
the glans is covered by a...called the... fold of skin...prepuce or foreskin
the penis' main nerves and vessels the midline dorsally
internally, the penis contains the...and 3 long... spongy urethra...clyindrical bodies of erectile tissue
corpus spongiosum surrounds the... spongy urethra
there are two paired dorsal corpora cavernosa located lateral to the corpus spongiosum
corpora cavernosa diverge at their...formed the..of the penis, each of which is bound to the...via... bases...cruca...ramus of the ischium...touch CT ligaments
each corpus cavernosum contains a deep artery of the penis
engorgement of these bodies with blood causes erection
semen release involves a two step process
emission is the process in which the sympathetic nervous system coordinates peristaltic contractions that mix the fluid components of the semen within the male reproductive tract
ejaculation is the process in which...begin in powerful rhythmic contractions...ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles of the pelvic floor...stiffen the penis and push semen toward the external urethral orifice
the male perineum is a...shaped perineum that contains the... diamond...scrotum, root of penis and the anus
the primary sex organs, also called..., for females are the gonads...ovaries which produce the gametes and sex hormones
the female accessory ducts include the uterine tube, uterus, vagina
the uterine tubues are where fertilization occurs
the vagina acts as a birth canal
the external genitalia of the female are referred to as the vulva or pudendum
the vulva or pudendum include the mons pubis, labia, clitoris, structures associated with the vestibule
the mammary glands are actually part of the...but are considered in this chapter because of their... integummentary system...reproductive functions of nourishing the infant
the female reproductive system also houses, nourishes, protects, and deilvers a developing baby
the femal repro system also undergoes a menstrual cycle of about 28 days
the ovaries are...shaped that lie on the...and flank the... almond...lateral walls of the pelvic cavity...uterus on each side and are suspended by various mesenteries and ligaments
the mesovarium is part of a....called the...which hangs like a tent from the... fold of peritoneum...broad ligament...uterus and uterine tubes
the mesovarium is continuous as the suspensory ligaments of the ovary and its continuation is the round ligament of the uterus
the ovarian ligament is a distinct...enclosed within the... fibrous band...broad ligament, and anchors the ovary to the uterus medially
each ovary is divided into two regions outer cortex and inner medulla
the outer cortex of the ovary is the regions that houses the developing gametes, called oocytes, which occur within saclike multicellular structures called follicles
the follicles enlarge substantially as they mature
the inner medulla of the ovary is the region comprised of loost CT containing the main ovarian blood vessel, lymph vessels, and nerves
the ovaries of a newborn female contain many thousands of primordial follicles, each of which consists of an oocyte surrounded by a layer of flat follicular cells
the ovarian cycle ahs three successive phases follicular phase (days 1-14), ovulation (day 14) and luteal phase (days 15-28)
the follicular phase is when...follicles start maturing 6-12
generally, only one follicle per month completes the maturation process
upon stimulation by...the oocyte is released from the luteinizing hormone...ovary into the peritoneal cavity
ovulation involves a...followed by... weakening and rupture of the follicle wall....violent muscular contraction of the external theca cells
the luteal phase is when the ruptured follicle remaining in the ovary becomes a wavy corpus luteum that secrets progesterone and estrogens
progesteron acts on mucosa of uterus, signaling it to prepare for implantaion of an embyro
if fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum... degenerates in about 2 weeks into a corpus albicans which remains in the ovary for several months and shrinks until it is finally phagocytosed by macrophages
oogenesis is the production of the female gametes (ova)
oogenesis starts before birth and takes decades to complete
the stem cells or...appear in the... oogonia...ovarian follicles of the fetus during oogenesis
primary oocytes stay in...until...occurs years later meiosis I...ovulation
each secondary oocyte then stays in..until a... meiosis II...sperm penetrates it
the uterine tube is also called the fallopian tube or oviducts
the uterine tubes receive the ovulated oocyte and provide a site for fertilization
each uterine tube extends from an ovary laterally to the uterus medially
the uterine tube has 3 reginos from lateral to medial including infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
the ciliated, finger-like projections called...extending from the...create... fimbriae...infundibulum...currents that help draw an ovulated oocyte into the uterine tube
the wall of the uterine tube includes two layers muscularis layer of smooth muscle and a folded inner mucosa with a simple columnar epithelium
both the smooth muscle and ciliated columnar epithelial cells help propel the oocyte toward the uterus
the uterus is located in the pelvic cavity anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder
the hollow uterus, is shaped like an...and has four regions... inverted pear...fundus, body, isthmus, cervix
the fundus of the uterus is the...region superior to the rounded...entrance of the uterine tubes
the isthmus is...region inferior to the slightly narrowed...body
the cervix is a...inferior to the...and projects into the narrow neck...isthmus...vagina
cervical glands fill the cervical canal with a bacteria-blocking mucus
the cervical canal communicates with the...via the... vagina...external os and with the cavity of the uterine body superiorly with the internal os
the uterus is anchored to the... lateral pelvic walls...mesomentrium which is the largest division of the broad ligament
the uterus is supported by the broad, lateral cervical, and round ligaments
most support for the uterus comes from the muscles of the pelvic floor
the uterine wall consists of three basic layers from outer to inner perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium
the perimetrium is the...which is the.. outer serous membrane...peritoneum
the myometrium is a...layer consisting of middle bulky...interlacing bundles of smooth muscle
the myometrium functions to squeeeze the baby out during childbirth
the endometrium is an...that consits of inner thick mucosa...simple columnar epithelium containing secretory and ciliated cells
the endometrium consists of two layers or...including the... strata...stratum functionalis and stratum basalis
the stratum functionalis is the inner layer closest to the uterine cavity
the stratum functionalis contains most of the uterine glands and contributes most of the endometrial thickness
stratum functionalis undergoes cyclic changes in response to varying levles of ovarian hormones and sloughs off each month
stratum basalis is the outer layer that is adjacent to the myometrium
stratum basalis attaches the endometrium to themyometrium
stratum basalis contains the and is not terminal branches of the tubular glands...shed but it replenishes the stratum functionalis
branches of the uterine arteries form arcuate arteries that encircle the endometrium
what supply the stratum basalis of the endometrium straight arteries
radial arteries branch from the arcuate arteries and supply the straight arteries and the spiral arteries
spiral arteries supply the stratum funcionalis
the uterine cycle length but can range normal individuals 28 days...21-35 days
endometrial phases are closely coordinated with the phases of the ovarian cycle
the uterine phases occur in response to hormones associated with the regulation of the ovarian cycle
the menstrual phase the onset of the...and is marked by the menses...uterine cycle...destruction of the functional layer of the endometrium
the proliferative phase is when the functional layer undergoes repair and thickens
proliferative phase: epithelial cells of the uterine glands multiply and spread across the endometrial surface, restoring the integrity of the uterine epithelium
the end result of proliferative phase is complete restoration of the functional layer
the secretory phase of the menstral cycle is when the...enlarge and incrase their... endometrial glands...rates of secretion
during secretory phase the arteries... elongate and spiral through the tissues of the funcitonal layer
the menstrual and proliferative phases are a shedding and then a rebuilding of the endometrium in the two weeks before ovulation
the third phase prepares endometrium to recethe vaive an embryo in the two tweeks after ovluation
menarche first uterine cycle at puberty whic typically occurs at age 11-12
menopause last uterine cycle which typically occurs at age 45-55
the vagina is a highly distensable muscular tube that runs from the cervic of the uterus to the body exterior at the vestibule
primary blood supply to the vagina vaginal branches of the internal iliac arteries and veins
vagina lies inferior to the...anterior and parallel to the...and posterior to the... uterus...rectum...urethra and bladder
the vagina acts as the lower portion of the birth canal
the vagina serves as a passageway for the elimination of menstrual fluids
vaginal wall consists of the outer adventitia, middle muscularis and inner mucosa
adventitia is made of fibrous CT
exception to the adventitia serosa that is continuous with the pelvic peritoneum covers the portion of the vagina to the uterus
middle muscularis layer are layers of smooth muscle fibers arranged in circular and longitudinal bundles that are continuous with the uterine myometrium
the inner mucusoa consits of an elastic lamina propia and a stratified squamous epithelium
in the relaxed state, the mucosa layer is thrown into folds called rugae
the vaginal lumen is acidic
the vaginal lining contains a normal population of resident bacteria which are supported by the nutrients found in the cervical mucus
the acidic environment of the vagina is due to the metabolic activity of the bacteria
the acidity of the vagina restricts growht of many pathogenic organisms and inhibits sperm motility
...are important for successful fertilization buffers in seminal fluid
near the vaginal orific, the inner layer of mucosa elaborates to form an incomplete diaphragm called the hymen which seperates the vagina from the vestibule
the hymen is vascular and tends to bleed when ruptured during the first sexual intercourse
vaginal fornix is a ...recess around the tip of the shallow ringlike...cervix in the superior vagina
cervical protrusion is an area where the cervix projects into the vaginal canal at the proximal end of the vagin
the female external genitalia include the following mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestuble, glands associated with the vestibule, perineum, mammary glands
mons pubis fatty, rounded pad overlying the pubic symphysis
labia majora is homologues of the...and derived from same scrotum...embyronic structure
labia majora are two... long, hair covered fatty skinfolds extending posteriorly from the mons pubis
labia minora are two thin hairless folds of skin enclosed by the labia majora
clitoris is located anterior to the urethral opening and projects into the vestibule
the clitoris is a protruding structure composed largely of erectile tissue that is homologous with the corpora cavernosai n males
clitoris is hooded by a fold of skin, the prepuce, which arises from extensions of the labia minora that encircle the body of the clitoris
glans small erectile tissue area that sits atop the clitoris
body of the clitoris contains paired corpora cavernosa
during sexual stimulation, the homologous bulbs of the vestibule or...engorge with... vestibular bulbs...blood
the vestibular bulbs are homologous to the corproa spnogiosum
the vestibular bulbs lie along each side of the vaginal orifice and directly deep to the bulbospongious muscle
vestuble is enclosed by labia minora
vestibule houses the vaginal orifice and the urethral orifice
the mucus secreting...and the...of the vestuble lie just deep to the labia greater vestibular glands....bulbs of the vestibule
glands associated with the vestibule include the paraurethral glands, lesser vestibular glands and the greater vestibular glands
paraurethral glands discharge lubricating fluid into the urethra near the external urethral orifice
lesser vestibular glands; a variable number of these glands discharge their secretions onto the exposed surface of the vestibule to keep it moistened
during arousal, the greater vestibular glands discharge their secretions via a..into the... pair of ducts...vestibule near the posterolateral margins of the vaginal entrance
the greater vestibular glands are...glands that resemble the... mucous...bulbourethral glands in the male repro system
femal perineum is...shaped region between the... diamond...pubic arch anteriorly, the coccyx posteriorly and the ischial tuberosities laterally
the central tendon of the perineum lies just posterior to the vaginal orifice and the fourchette where the right and left labia minora come together to form a ridge
the mammary glands develope from the skin of the embyronic milk lines
the mammary glands lie in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest
the mammary glands function as the site of lactation
internally, each breast consits of 15-25 lobes that secrete milk
the lobes are subdivided into...and are separated by lobules and alveoli...adipose tissue and by supportive suspensory ligaments
the secretory lobules consist of lactiferous duct, lactiferous sinus
lactiferous duct convergence of ducts leaving the lobule
breast cancer usually arise from the lactiferous duct system
lactiferous sinus is the expanision of ducts leaving the lobules near the nipple
lactiferous sinus are ducts of underlying mammary glands that open onto the body surface as the nippel
what supply the breasts internal thoracic artery
the full glandular structure of the breast does not develop until the second half of pregnancy under the influence of hormones
prolactin is secreted from the anterior pituitary
growth hormone is from the anterior pituitary
the human placental lactogen is from the placenta
Created by: handrzej



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