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A&P I Final

the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Anatomy
the study of the function of the body Physiology
study of tissues Histology
Levels of Structural Organization Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Integumentary System
Site of blood cell formation, stores minerals Skeletal System
Maintains posture, produces heat, allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Muscular System
Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands, Is the fast-acting control system of the body. Nervous system
Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels. Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Lymphatic System
Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood. Urinary system
ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world Homeostasis
system where the output shuts off the original stimulus Example: Regulation of room temperature negative feedback
system where the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood clotting positive feedback
toward and away from the head, respectively Superior and inferior
away from the midline lateral
cuts made diagonally Oblique section
divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Frontal or coronal
Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera),and is divided into two subdivisions Thoracic, Abdominopelvic
Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities the mediastinum, and pericardial
contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs mediastinum
unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means elements
The nucleus consists of neutrons and protons
equal to the number of protons Atomic number
average of the mass numbers of all isotopes Atomic weight
atoms with same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Isotope
two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together Compound
two or more components physically intermixed (not chemically bonded) Mixtures
homogeneous mixtures of components Solutions
No chemical bonding takes place in mixtures
All compounds are homogeneous
Compounds cannot be separated by physical means
Properties of Water: is an important part of hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions reactivity
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food Carbohydrates
Examples: Neutral fats, Phospholipids, steroids and eicosanoids Lipids
modified triglycerides with two fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group Phospholipids
Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds Proteins
release H+ and are therefore proton donors Acids
release OH– and are proton acceptors bases
Reversible unfolding of proteins due to drops in PH ,increased temperature
Body coverings: skin, body linings: serous membrane, Glandular tissue: tonsils Epithelial Tissues
Epithelial Tissues Functions: Protection, Absorption, filtration, Secretion
Cartilage, Bone, blood Connective Tissue
Functions of Connective Tissue Binding and support, Protection, insulation and transportation
Functions of the: Metabolic functions – synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels, Protection – chemical, physical, and mechanical barrier Integumentary System
Cells undergo rapid division (mitosis), hence its alternate name, stratum germinativum Stratum Basale, Basal Layer
Least malignant and most common skin cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma
Estimates the severity of burns Rule of Nines
Rule of Nines: There are third-degree burns on face, hands, or feet
Rule of Nines: Over 25% of the body has second-degree burns
Rule of Nines: Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns
Functions: Sensory input – monitoring stimuli Integration – interpretation of sensory input Motor output – response to stimuli Nervous System
Paired spinal and cranial nerves, Carries messages to and from the spinal cord and brain Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Two Functional Divisions Sensory (afferent) division, Motor (efferent) division
Motor Division: Two Main Parts Somatic nervous system, Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Neurons Their plasma membrane function in what kind of signaling Electrical, Cell-to-cell
Nerve Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma)Has well-developed Nissl bodies,(rough ER)
Nerve Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma)Contains an – cone-shaped area from which axons arise axon hillock
They are the receptive, or input, regions of the neuron Dendrites of Motor Neurons
Dendrites of Motor Neurons: Electrical signals are conveyed as (not action potentials) graded potentials
Site of protein synthesis Ribosomes
External surface studded with ribosomes, Responsible for the synthesis of integral membrane proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
In the intestinal cells – absorption, Synthesis, and transport of fats In skeletal and cardiac muscle – storage and release of calcium Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes Digest ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins Lysosomes
Detoxify harmful or toxic substances, Neutralize dangerous free radicals Peroxisomes
an elaborate network of rods running throughout the cytosol functioning in supporting cellular structures and in generating cell movements. Cytoskeleton
Organize mitotic spindle during mitosis Centrioles
Gene-containing control center of the cell, Dictates the kinds and amounts of proteins to be synthesized Nucleus
Cell Cycle Order: Growth (G1),synthesis (S),growth (G2), Mitosis and cytokinesis
Centriole pairs separate and the mitotic spindle is formed Early and Late Prophase
Chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell with their centromeres aligned at the exact center, or equator, of the cell Metaphase
New sets of chromosomes extend into chromatin, new nuclear membrane is formed from the rougher, completes cell division Telophase and Cytokinesis
Transfer of information from the sense strand of DNA to RNA Transcription
the production of proteins by decoding mRNA produced in transcription Translation
primarily functions in lipid metabolism Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
enzyme is the first one needed for DNA replication Helicase
respond to touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, and itch Mechanoreceptors
respond to chemicals (e.g., smell, taste, changes in blood chemistry Chemoreceptors
sensitive to pain-causing stimuli Nociceptors
how many pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain Twelve
how many pairs of mixed nerves arise from the spinal cord and supply all parts of the body except the head Thirty-one
how many cervical (C1-C8) eight
how many thoracic (T1-T12) twelve
how many Lumbar (L1-L5) five
how many Sacral (S1-S5) five
how many Coccygeal (C0) one
five components of a reflex arc Receptor, Sensory neuron, Integration center, Motor neuron, Effector
Innervate smooth and cardiac muscle and glands Autonomic Nervous System
The effectors of the SNS are skeletal muscles
The effectors of the ANS are cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
ANS divisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic
mobilizes the body during extreme situations, involves E activities – exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment The sympathetic
performs maintenance activities and conserves body energy, Involves the D activities – digestion, defecation, and diuresis The parasympathetic
ACh-releasing fibers Cholinergic fibers
sympathetic postganglionic axons that release NE Adrenergic fibers
Transparent membrane that: Lines the eyelids, lubricates and protects the eye Conjunctiva
these secrete tears Lacrimal glands
the site where the optic nerve leaves the eye, lacks photoreceptors (the blind spot) The optic disc
A plasma like fluid that fills the anterior segment, supports, nourishes, and removes wastes Aqueous humor
biconvex, transparent, flexible, avascular structure that: Allows precise focusing of light onto the retina Lens
Pathway of light entering the eye: cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, and the neural layer of the retina to the photoreceptors
normal eye with light focused properly Emmetropic eye
the focal point is in front of the retina Myopic eye (nearsighted)
the focal point is behind the retina Hyperopic eye (farsighted)
Functional Areas: control voluntary movement motor
Functional Areas: conscious awareness of sensation sensory
conscious awareness of sensation: integrate diverse information Association areas
A motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue; Is active as one prepares to speak Brocas area
Receives information from the skin and skeletal muscles; Exhibits spatial discrimination Primary Somatosensory Cortex
located in frontal lobe Involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality Prefrontal Cortex
each hemisphere has abilities not shared with its partner Lateralization
found deep within the cortical white matter: Influence muscular activity, Regulate attention and cognition Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements Basal Nuclei
Consists of three paired structures – thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus Diencephalon
Mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory; Sensual afferent impulses converge and synapse here Thalamic Function
Regulates blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility, rate and depth of breathing, perception of pleasure, fear, and rage, Maintains normal body temperature Hypothalamic Function
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the third ventricle; Pineal gland – extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin Epithalamus
Consists of three regions – midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata Brain Stem
Connect higher brain centers and the spinal cord Relay impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum Pons
Parts especially important in emotions: Amygdala – deals with anger, danger, and fear responses Cingulate gyrus – plays a role in expressing emotions via gestures, and resolves mental conflict Limbic System
Sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert Filters out repetitive and weak stimuli Reticular Activating System
Entails learning explicit information Is related to our conscious thoughts and our language ability Fact (declarative) memory
less conscious, involves motor activity It is acquired through practice and do not retain the context in which they were learned Skill Memory
The brain is protected by bone, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid
enclosed within the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to L1, provides two-way communication to and from the brain Spinal Cord
severe damage to the ventral root or anterior horn cells, There is no voluntary or involuntary control of muscles Flaccid paralysis
only upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex are damaged, Spinal neurons remain intact and muscles are stimulated irregularly Spastic paralysis
transection between T1 and L1 Paraplegia
transection in the cervical region Quadriplegia
Created by: 100000198772503