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HA Ch. 24 (26)

The Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
the kidneys are the major excretory organs of the urinary system
the kindeys..of...by forming... cleanse the blood...nitrogenous wastes, toxins, excess ions and water, and other unnecessary or undesirable substances...urine
the kindeys also maintain proper chemical composition of the blood and other body fluids
the main waste products excreted in urine are nitrogenous compounts
the nitrogenous compounds include urea, uric acid and creatinine
urea is derived from breakdown of amino acids during normal recycling of body's proteins
uric acid is from turnover of nucleic acids
creatinine is formed by the...which is a molecule in breakdown of creatine phosphate...muscle that stores energy for the manufacture of ATP
organs for transporting and storing urine include ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
ureteres are tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
the urinary bladder is a temporary storage tank for urine
the urethra is a tube that carries urine to the body exterior
the kidneys are...that lie in the red-brown, bean shaped kidneys...superior lumbar region of the posterior abdominal wall
the right kidney is crowded by the liver and lies slightly inferior to the left kidney
the kidney has a...lateral surface convex
the medial surface of the kidneys are concave
the vertical cleft of the kidneys contain the renal hilus where vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidney
layers of the supportive tissue surround each kidney from deep to superficial renal capsule, adipose capsule, renal fascia, and pararenal fat
the renal capsule is also called the...which is made of a...layer of... fibrous capsule...dense CT...collagen fibers
the renal capsule adheres directly to the kidney's surface
the renal capsule maintains the shape of the kidney
the renal capsule forms a barrier to inhibit the spread of infection
the renal capsule provides mechanical protection
the adipose capsule is also called the...and is a layer of...around the kidney which provides perinephric fat or perirenal fat...fat...cushioning
the renal fascia is the...layer formed by the...that extend...through the... dense outer layer...collagen fibers...outward from inner renal capsule...adipose capsule or perinepheric fat
the renal fascia anchors the kidney to surrounding structures
the renal fascia is bound posteriorly to... deep facia surrounding the muscles of the body wall
the renal fascia is anteriorly attached to the peritoneum and to the anterior renal fascia of the opposite side
the pararenal fat separates the posterior and renal fascia from the body wall
2 distinct regions of the kidney tissue include the renal cortex and the renal medulla
the renal cortex is the...layer of the kidney which is in contact with the.. granular and reddish brown outer...renal or fibrous capsule
the renal cortex has...that are... renal columns...inward extensions of the cortex which seperate the adjacent pyramids
the renal medulla is the...region of the kidney located internal to the darker...renal cortex
the renal medulla consists of medullary pyramids
the medullary pyramids are distinctly...shaped masses containing cone or triangular...striations
the base of each pyramid faces the cortex and the tip projects into the renal sinus
the renal medulla contains...which are the pyramids'...or... renal papillae...tips...apices
the renal lobe of the renal medulla is the area that contains a...,the overyling area of...and the renal pyramid...renal cortex...adjacent tissues of the renal columns
the renal sinus is a....within the... large space...medial part of the kidney opening to the exterior through the renal hilus
the renal pelvis is a flat...shaped tube that is the...part of the... funnel...superior ureter
the renal pelvis has branching extensions of two or three major calices
the major calices further branch into minor calices
the minor calices are...tubes that enclose the... smaller cup shaped...the papillae of the pyramids
the calices collect...and empty it into the... urine draining from the papilae...renal pelvis, then into the urethers, and finally into the urinary bladder
under normal resting conditions...of the hearts systemic output reaches the kidneys via the 25%...large renal arteries which branch out into the kidney
renal arteries in order renal arteries, segmental arteries, lobar arteries, interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries, afferrent arterioles
from the afferent arterioles, blood flows into the.... glomerulus, then efferrent arterioles, then peritubular capillaries, interlobular veins, arcuate veins, interlobar veins, renal veins, inferior vena cava
the segmental arteries enter the renal hilus
the interlobar arteries lie in renal columns between medullary pyramids
the arcuate arteries arch over the base of pyramids
the interlobular arteries radiate outward from the arcuate arteries and supply the cortical tissue and divide the cortical tissue into lobules
the glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries
peritubular capillaries contains the vasa recta which is where blood leaves the renal cortex and drains into interlobular veins
what percent of blood entering the kidney perfuses the cortex 90%
the veins of the kidneys essentially trace the pathway of the arteries in reverse, but there are no lobar or segmental veins
the nerve supply to the kidneys is provided by the...which is a network of... renal plexus...autonomic fibers and ganglia on the renal arteries
the renal plexus is supplied by...which control the...and influence.. sympathetic fibers...diameters of kidney arteries...urine-forming functions of the urinerferous tubules
the uriniferous tubule is comprised of a nephron and a collecting tubule and blood vessels
uriniferous tubule is the main structural and functional unit of the kidney
the nephron is a..structure urine forming
the nephron components include the renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle and distal convoluted tubule
the collecting tubule or duct concentrates urine by removing water form the urine formed in the nephron
the collecting tubule is lined by simple epithelium throughout its length
mechanisms of urine production include filtration, reabsorption and secretion
filtration: filtrate of...leaves the kidney...and enters the blood...capillaries...nephron
reabsorption is a...where most of...are reclaimed form the filtrate and returned to the... passive process..nutrients, water and essential ions...blood of capillaries
secretion is an...which moves additional...into the... active process...undesirable molecules...collecting tubule from the blood of surrounding capillaries
the renal corpuscle of the nephron occurs in the...and consists of... cortex only...glomerulus, flomerular capsule
the glomerulus is surrounded by a glomerular capsule
the glomerular capsule of...capsule has a...interior called the... bowman's...hollow...capsular space
the capsular space of the glomerular capsule separtes the parietal and visceral epithelial layers
the vascular pole of the glomerular capsule is the connection between the parietal and visceral epithelia
the glomerular capillaries are connected to the bloodstream via the afferent and efferent arterioles
2 layers of the glomerular capsule parietal layer and visceral layer
the parietal layer is made of...epithelium and contribues to simple squamous...structure only
visceral layer clings to the glomerulus
the visceral layer has...epithelial cells called ...with..called...that surround the glomerular capillaries unusual, branching...podocytes...interdigitating foot process...pedicels
filtrate passes into the..through... capsular space..filtration slits
the glomerular capillaries produce the..that moves through the rest of the uriniferous tubules, forming... filtrate..urine
the filtration membrane or...is the actual...that lies between the apparatus...filter...blood in the glomerulus and the capsular space
the filtration membrane has 3 layers of physical barriers including fenestrated endothelium, filtration slits, and intervening baement membrane
filtration slits of glomerular epithelia each are covered by a thin slit of diaphragm
the intervening basement membrane consists of fused basal laminae of the endothelium and the podocyte epithelium
if the dense layer of filtration membrane encircles two or more capillaries,...cells are situated betwee the mesangial...endothelial cells of adjacent capillaries
the mesangial cells provide physical support for capillaries
the mesangial cells engulf organic materials that might othwerise clog the dense layer
the mesangial cells regulate the...hence they have a role in the regulation of... diameters of the glomerular capillaries...glomerular blood flow and filtration
the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is the nephron component that is confined entirely to the renal cortex
the proximal convoluted tubule is most active in reabsorption and secretion
the PCT has...cells with... cuboidal epithelial cells...luminal surface microvilli
the PCT contains increased number of mitochondria to provide energy for reabsorption
the loop of henle has a...limb and a....limb desencing...ascending
the descending limb has a first part that is similar in structure to and is continuous with the proximal covoluted tubule
the 2nd part of the limb is considered the...and is... thing segment...permeable simple squamous epithelium
each limb has a ...and... thick segment and thin segment
the thick segment of the ascending limb begins...and contains...that pump... deep in the medulla...active transport mechanisms...sodium and chloride ions out of the tubular fluid
the thin segment of the ascending is freely...to..but relatively...to.. permeable...water...impermeable...ions and other solutes
the DCT is confined to the...and contains renal cortex...simple cuboidal epithelium
the DCT is specialized for selective secretion and reabsorption of ions
the DCT functions in conserving body fluids
classes of nephrons are divided according to location
cortical nephrons make up...of all nephrons and are located 85%....almost entirely within the cortex
juxtamedullary nephrons make up...of all nephrons and their renal corpuscles lie 15%...near the cotex-medulla junction
the collecting tubules receive urine from several nephrons and run straight through the cortex into the deep medulla
the papillary ducts are made of...and empty into the adjacent collecting tubules...minor calices through the renal papillae
the walls of the collecting tubules consist of...and thicken to become... simple cuboidal epithelium...simple columnar in papillary ducts
the main function of collecting tubules is to conserve body fluids
during water conservation in the collecting tubules adh is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and increases permeability of the collecting tubules and DCT to water
the microscopic blood vessels are associated with the ufiniferious tubules include the glomerulus, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta
the glomerulus are high resistance vessels
the peritubular capillaries arise from the efferent arterioles, draining the cortical glomerulus
the peritubular capillaries surround the...in the... uriniferous tubules...interstitial CT of the renal cortex
peritubular capillaries are...capillaries adapted for absorption low-pressure, porous
vasa recta are...walled looping vessels that surround the thin...juxtamedullary nephron
the vasa recta runs alongside the loops of Henle in the deepest part of the renal cortex
the vasa recta plays a role in the kidney's urine-concentrating mechanism
juxtaglomerular apparatus is a structure that functions in regulation of blood pressure
the juxtaglomeruluar appartaus is the area of specialized contactbetween the first part of the DCT and the juxtaglomerular cells
the first part of the DCT contains...which act as...to monitor... macula densa cells...chemoreceptors...solute concentration in the filtrate
juxtaglomerular cells surround the afferent and efferent arterioles and act as mechanoreceptors to monitor BP
the juxtaglomerular cells secret renin which increases blood solute concentrate, blood volume and most importantly, increase BP
the ureters are...tubes that carry slender...carry urine from kidneys to the bladder
the ureters are a continuation of the renal pelvis
the ureters have 3 basic layers from deep to superficial mucosa, muscularis, adventitia
the mucosa is made of...and... transitional epithelia...lamina propria
muscularis has an inner...layer and an outer...of... longitudinal...circular...smooth muscle
the muscularis has a third layer or...appears in the external longitudinal...inferior third of the ureter
the adventitia is typical CT
the urinary bladder is a...sac that temporarily collapsible, muscular...stores and expels urine
the bladder lies anterior to the rectum in males and anterior to the vagina and inferior to the urterus in females
the bladder has...dimensions depdning on the sate of vary8ing...distension
maximum capacity is typically...of urin in the bladder 1 liter
the bladder contains the posterolateral angles or uretal openings, urachus, inferior angle, trigone
the posteroloateral angles or ureteral openings of the bladder are..openinings that receive the slit-like...ureters
the superior surfaces of the urinary bladder are covered by a layer of peritoneum
several peritoneal folds of the ureteral openings assist in stabilizing the position of the urinary bladder
lateral umbilical ligaments pass along the sides of the bladder and also assist in stabilizing bladder position
urachus or...is made of... median umbilical ligament....fibrous band at the bladder's anterior angle
urachua extends from the anterior and superior border toward the umbilicus
urachus contains the closed remnant of an embryonic tube called allantois
the embryonic tube or allantois is a ... vestige of the umbilical arteries that supply blood to the placenta during embryonic and fetal development
the inferior angle or neck of the bladder drains into the urethra
in males, the prostate gland lies directly inferior to the bladder surrounding the urethra
the trigone is a...region on the posterior wall of the.. triangular...bladder interior defined by openings
trigone's mucosa lacks rugae or folds
the trigone is..and very... smooth...thick in apperance
the trigone acts as a funnel that channels urine into the urethra when the bladder contracts
the trigone is of special clincal importance because infections tend to persist in this region
there are three layers of the bladder wall incluidng the mucosa, muscularis and fibrous adventitia
the mucosa of the bladder is made of... transitional epithelium, lamina propria and submucosa
the mucosa of bladder lines the bladder interior
the mucosa has...in the mucosal lining that disappear as the... rugae...bladder stretches and fills with urine
the muscularis is...muscle consists of highly... detrusor...intermingled smooth muscle fibers
the smooth muscle fibers of the muscularis of the bladder contains inner longitudinal layer of smooth muscle, middle circular layer, outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
contraction of the detrusor... compresses the urinary bladder and expels its contents into the urethra
fibrous adventitia is the outer CT layer
the fibrous adventitia has a layer of serosa that covers the superior surface of the urinary bladder
the urethra is a thin walled tube that drains urine from the bladder to the body exterior
urethra is comprised of smooth muscle and an inner mucosa
in males, the muscular layer of the urethra becomes very thin toward the distal end of the urethra
the urethra extends from the...of the urinary bladder to the neck or inferior angle...exterior
the male and female urethrae differ in length and in function
the female urethra is...and goes from the very short...bladder to the vestibule
the female urethra has an external urethral orifice situated near the anterior wall of the vagina
the male urethra extends from the neck of the bladder to the tip of the penis
the prostatic urethra passes through the prostate gland
the membranous urethra includes a...that penetrates the short segment...urogenital diaphragm which is the muscular flood of the pelvic cavity
spongy urethra or penile urethra extends from the distal border of the urogenital diaphragm to the external urethral orifice at the tip of the penis
internal urethral sphincter is the... thickening of the detrusor muscle at the bladder urethra junction
involuntary sphincter of smooth muscle that keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed and prevents dribbling of urine between voidings
external urethral sphincter surrounds urethra within the sheet of muscle called urogenital diaphragm and is made of skeletal muscle
micturition is the act of emptying the bladder through the contraction of the detrusor muscle, and is assisted by muscles of the abdominal wall which contract to increase the intra-abdominal pressure
urine flows through the renal tubule of the kidney in the following order glomerular capsule, PCT, loop of henle, DCT, collecting duct or tubule, papillary duct, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Created by: handrzej