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Anat. -Ch.6 Muscles

Chapter 6 - Muscles

Four major functional characteristics of muscles Contractility, Excitability, Elasticity, Extensibility
contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil back to original position
Muscles help to produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature. True or False. True
Epimysium Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
Fascia Connective tissue located outside the epimysium. Surrounds and seperates muscles.
Perimysium surrounds muscle fasiculi
Muscle Fasciculi A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles
Fasciculi Are composed of single muscle cells called fibers
Endomysium surrounds a fiber by a connective tissue sheath
Myofibrils A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
2 major kinds of protein fibers in myofibrils actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments
Actin Myofilaments Thin filaments
Myosin Myofilaments Thick myofilaments
Sarcomeres Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units
The basic structural and functional unity of the muscle sarcomeres
Resting Membrane Potential Charge differences across the membrane
Action Potential When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. The brief reversal back of the charge is ___
Motor Neurons Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Neuromuscular juntion each branch that connects to the muscle
Synapse branch that connects to the muscle forms this and near the center of the cell
Motor Unit A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
Presynaptic Terminal Enlarged nerve terminal
Synaptic Cleft The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
Each sarcomere extends from on Z line to the next; Has an H-Zone in the center; Contains overlapping actin and myosin
A high-energy molecule that can be quickly used to produce ATP Creatine phosphate
Anaerobic Respiration produces lactic acid within the muscle
Cardiac muscle Has long, cylindrical cells
An anterior thigh muscle that extends the leg is the quadriceps femoris
The hip muscle commonly called the buttocks the gluteus maximus
Blinking Orbicularis oculi
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
___ ____ occurs in the presence of oxygen aerobic respiration
2 muscle disorders cramps and muscular distrophy
2 muscle contractions isometric and isotonic
origin most stationary end of the muscle
belly between the insertion and origin
oblique right angle
raises eyebrows occipitofrontalis
2 tongue muscles intrinsic and extrinsic
smiling zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
3 types of muscle cardiac smooth and skeletal
muscles that work together synergists
muscles that work in opposition antagonists
fast twitch muscles... fatigue quickly
slow twitch muscles... are resistant to fatigue
the muscle responsible for elevating the ribs during inspiration is the internal intercostals
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimuli until that stimulus reaches a level called... threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the... lag phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated is called... recruitment
ATP is need for energy for the muscle contraction
ATP is produced where mitochondria
oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid
Muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contractions faster than it is produced
muscle ton constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing a movement is it the prime mover
pucker orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
chewing mastication
4 pairs of chewing muscles temporalis, masseter, pterygoid (2)
intrinsic tongue muscles changes the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles moves the tongue
neck muscles sternocleidomastoid and torticollis
sternocleidomastoid prime mover/lateral neck muscle
torticollis twisted neck
connective tissue that separates muscles and surrounds the epimysium is called fascia
which of the following characteristics would establish conclusively that muscle tissue being examined was skeletal muscle tissue? intercalated disks present
Created by: sinteque



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