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Neuro3 Motor System

Neuro3 Motor System VI

QuestionAnswer
Damage to the basal ganglia will cause what? Dyskinesia Movement disorders. **Unleashing unwanted patterns of motion.
What is the internal capsule White myelinated band which runs through the grey mass of deep nuclei. **Has an anterior limb, gyneu, and posterior limb.
What is carried within the Internal Capsule 1.Corticospinal. 2.CorticoNuclear. 3.Corticopontine. 4.Corticothalamic. 5.CorticoStriatal.
What two structures are seperated by the Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule? 1.Putamen (lateral). 2.Caudate Nuclei (medial).
What connects the Putamen and the Cuadate Nuclei? Corpus Striatum (most lateral basal ganglia structure).
What is located b/w the Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule and the Putamen? Globus Pallidus
What is seperated by the Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule? 1.Globus Pallidus & Putamen. 2.Thalamus.
What are the 4 main components of the Basal Ganglia? 1.Corpus Striatum. 2.Globus Pallidus (Pallidum). 3.Substantia Niagra (midbrain). 4.Subthalamic Nuclei (midbrain)
Do the cerebellum or the basal ganglia project into the spinal cord? NO. **they communicate with the thalamus and brainstem
General pathway of information flow from the cortex to the thalamus 1.Cortex. 2.Corpus Striatum. 3.Globus Pallidus. 4.Thalamus. **then back up to the cortex.
What are the 2 different cell types in the Corpus Striatum? 1.GABA/ENK (Indirect pathway). 2.GABA/SubP (Direct pathway).
What are the 2 divisions of the Globus Pallidus? 1.Globus Pallidus Externus. 2.Globus Pallidus Internus.
What neurotransmitter is released from the Cerebral cortex onto the Corpus Striatum cells? Glutamate(excitatory).
What is directly connected to the Thalamas to control its activity? What neurotransmitter does it release onto the thalamus? Globus Pallidus Internus. **It inhibits the Thalamus via GABA.
Describe the Direct pathway control over the Thalamus 1.Corpus Striatum cells secrete GABA/SubP onto Globus Pallidus internal (GPi). 2.This inhibits GPi from releasing GABA onto the Thalamus. 3.This allows INCREASED thalamic activity. **"GO" pathways.
Describe the Indirect pathway control over the Thalamus 1.Corpus Striatum cells release GABA/ENK onto Globus Pallidus external (GPe). 2.This inhibits GPe from releasing GABA onto the Subthalamic Nuc. 3.Subthalamic Nuc then release Glutamate onto GPi. 4.Glut Inc GPi's release of GABA onto the thalamus. "N
How will the thalamic activity be affected by Inc GABA/ENK release? DECREASE thalamic activity by Stimulating GPi.
How will the thalamic activity be affected by Inc GABA/SubP releae? INCREASE thalamic activity by Inhibiting GPi
What does the Substantia Niagra release dopamine onto? What are the 2 different receptors involved? Corpus Striatum: 1.GABA/ENK releasing cells have D2 receptors which are Inhibitory. 2.GABA/SubP releasing cells have D1 receptors which are excitatory.
How will dopamine from the substantia Niagra affect thalamic activity? INCREASE thalamic Activity: 1.Inc GABA/SubP release onto GPi which Dec GABA release onto thalamus. 2.Dec GABA/ENK release onto GPe which Inc release of GABA from GPe onto Subthal Nuc which dec release of Glut from subthal onto GPi.
How will parkinsonism affect the Thalamis activity? With the loss of Substantia Niagra, there will be no dopamine to Inc the Inhibition of GPi's release of GABA onto the thalamus: 1.Inc GABA/ENK. 2.Dec GABA/SubP. **this will produce drastically dec thalamic activity and thus brady & akinesi
What cell type is lost in Huntington's disease? How does it lead to constant movement? GABA-ENK cells in the corpus Striatum. **this allows for overactive GPe to inhibit the Subthal Nuc from stimulating GABA release from GPi onto the thalamus
What is the genetic cause of Huntington's? Triplet repeat mutation of the huntington gene: CAG. **Greater than 35 repeats will cause the disease.
Is Huntington's Degenerative? YES. it will get progressively worse
What occurs in Ridged Huntington's disease? Both GABA/ENK and GABA/SubP cells in the Corpus Striatum are destroyed: 1.Dec Inhibition of GPi. 2.Inc excitation of GPi (via subthal glutamate)
How can you differentiate b/w Ridged Huntington's disease and Parkinson's? Ridged Huntington's will have NORMAL dopamine levels.
Hemiballism usually results from an infarct damaging what structure? how does this affect thalamic activity? SUBTHALAMIC NUC: 1.Dec Glut release onto GPi. 2.Dec GABA release from GPi onto Thalamus. **Inc thalamic activity leading to constant rotatory motion.
Differentate b/w the excessive motion seen with Athetosis Vs Hemiballism Athetosis causing slow, writhing motion instead of rotatory constant motion. **this is b/c not all of the connection b/w the thalamus ad GPi is lost.
Athetosis results from the an Infarct to the Lenticular Fasciculus which lies within what structure? What symptoms will initially mask Athetosis b/c of its location? INTERNAL CAPSULE. **Paralysis will be the initial presentation b/c corticospinal fibers also run through the internal capsule.
Created by: WeeG