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skeletal system

acetabulum a socket in the pelvic bone where the thigh bone joins the pelvis.
acromion highest part of the shoulder where the clavicle and scapula meet
articulation a joint which binds two bones together
ligaments connective tissue which binds bone to bone
skeletal muscles a.k.a voluntary or striated muscles which attach to bone
smooth muscles muscles found in visceral organs and blood vessels
synovial joints freely moving joints
tendons connective tissue which binds muscle to bone
frontal bone the frontal bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the bony cavities that contain the eyeballs
occipital bone the single occipital bone forms the back of the head and the base of the skull.
temporal bones the two temporal bones form the lower sides and part of the base of the skull.
mandibular bone lower jaw bone
lacrimal bones the two small lacrimal bones are paper thin and shaped somewhat like a finger nail. inner corner of each eye forming the sidewall of the nasal cavity and the middle wall of the eye orbit.
cervical vertebrae first segment of the vertebral column, first seven bones of the vertebral column.
thoracic vertebrae the second segment is the thoracic vertebrae consisting of the next 12 vertebrae.
lumbar vertebrae the third segment, consisiting of the next five vertebrae. the larger and heavier than the other vertebrae, and support the back and lower trunk of the body.
sacrum the fourth segment of the vertebral column. located below the lumbar vertebrae. single triangular-shaped bone that resulted from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child. wedged between two hip bones, attached to the pelvic girdle.
coccyx tailbone
xiphoid process the lower portion of the sternum.
humerus the upper arm bone, joins the scapula above and the radius and ulna below
radius one of the two lower arm bones that joins the humerus above and the wrist bones below. lateral or thumb, side of the arm.
ulna is the second of the two lower arm bones that joins the humerus above and the wrist bones below. medial, or little finger, side of the arm.
carpals bones of the wrists (8 carpal bones per wrists)
metacarpals bones of the hand
phalanges bones of the fingers
ilium the largest of the three hip bones
iliac crest the upper curved edge of the ilium
ischium the lowest part of the hip bones and is the strongest of the pelvic bones.
femur the thigh bone
patella the knee bone or kneecap
tibia the larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones.
fibula is more slender of the two larger leg bones and is lateral to the tibia.
tarsals bones of the ankle
metatarsals the bones of the foot
phalanges bones of the toes, each toe has 3 phalangeal bones.
condyle knucklelike projection at the end of a bone.
diaphysis main shaftlike portion of a bone
epiphyseal line a layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis of a bone; known as the epiphyseal plate
epiphysis the end of a bone
false ribs rib pairs 8 - 10 which connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front.
flat bones bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum.
floating ribs rib pairs 11 and 12 which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front.
fontanelle or fantanel space between the bones of an infants cranium;"soft spot"
foramen hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass.
hematopoiesis the normal formation and development of the blood cells in the bone marrow
intercostal spaces spaces between the ribs
intervertebral disc a flat, circular platelike structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion or shock absorber between the vertebrae
long bones bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur.
ossification the conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone, the formation of bone.
osteoblasts immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue.
osteocytes mature bone cells.
periosteum the thick, white,fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone.
short bones bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box-shaped, such as the wrist bone.
sinus an opening or hollow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone.
sulcus a groove or depression in a bone a fissure
sutures immovable joints, such as those of the cranium.
trochanter large bony process located below the neck of the femur.
ture ribs the first seven pairs of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front.
tubercle a small rounded process of a bone.
osteoporosis bones that were once strong became fragile due to loss of bone density.
osteomalacia disease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
osteomyelitis local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
spinal stenosis narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramini of the lumbar spinal canal.
kyphosis abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback.
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of a portion of the spine.
closed fracture known as a simple fracture. there is a break in a bone but no open wound in the skin.
open fracture compound fracture, there is a break in a bone, as well as an open wound in the skin.
compression fracture caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other, as in the compression of one vertebra against another.
impacted fracture occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone.
colles' fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connection with the wrist bones.
hairline fracture a.k.a stress fracture is a minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment.
pathological fracture occurs when a bone, which is weakened bye a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break.
closed reduction consists of aligning the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction, without making an incision into the skin.
open reduction consists of realigning the bone under direct observation during surgery.
Created by: tbutko89



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