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Anatomy/Positioning

Ch 3

QuestionAnswer
______ is the term applied to the science of the structure of the body. Anatomy
______ is the detailed study of the body of knowledge relating to the bones of the body. Osteology
Describe the anatomical position: standing upright, facing forward with the palms of the hands facing forward.
A ______ plane divides the entire body or a body part into right and left segments. A ____ plane divides the body into equal right/left halves. sagittal; midsagittal
What are the two great cavities of the torso? Thoracic and abdominal
An ______ plane can pass through a body part at an angle. oblique
Name the structures which are located within the thoracic cavity? Pleural membranes, lungs, trachea, esophagus, pericardium, heart and blood vessels
Name the structures within the abdominal caivty: peritoneum, liver gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, intestines, kidneys, ureters
Name the structures located within the pelvis: rectum, urinary, bladder and reproductive system
In which quadrant of the abdomen is the appendix located? RLQ - right lower quadrant
Which region of the abdomen is located below the umbilical region? hypogastric region
Which vertebra is located at the mastoid tip? C1
Which vertebra is located at the gonion? C2, C3
Which vertebra is located at the hyoid bone? C3, C4
Which vertebra is located at the thyroid cartilage? C5
Which vertebra is located at the vertebra prominens? C7, T1
Which vertebra is located 2" above jugular notch? T1
Which vertebra is located at the jugular notch? T2, T3
Which vertebra is located at the level of sternal angle? T4, T5
Which vertebra is located at the level of inferior angles of scapulae? T7
Which vertebra is located at the level of xiphoid process? T9, T10
Which vertebra is located at the inferior costal margin? l2, L3
Which vertebra is located at the superiormost aspect of iliac crests? L4, L5
Which vertebra is located at ASIS? S1, S2
Which vertebra is located at the level of pubic symphysis and greater trochanters? Coccyx
Whcih body habitus represents a person of large massive stature in whomthe stomach in located high and nearly horizontal? hypersthenic
Which body habitus is most common? Least Common? Sthenic; hypersthenic
How many bones comprise the skeleton? Axial? Appendicular? 206; 80; 126
Which structures belongs to the axial skeleton? skull, rib cage and vertebral column
The _____ skeleton supports and protects the head and trunk. The ____ skeleton allows the body to move. axial; appendicular
A tough fibrous connective tissue that covers all bony surfaces except the articular surfaces: periosteum
Long bones have a central cavity called the _______. medullary cavity
The tissue lining the medullary cavity of bones is called the ______. endosteum
_______ ossification begins before birth and forms the entire bulk of the short and irregular bones. Primary
A ______ has two heads and a shaft. Examples include: long bone; femur, humerus and phalanges
Name examples of short bones: carpals and tarsals
Names examples of flat bones: what function do they provide? cranium, sternum and scapula; protection
The vertebrae, facial and pelvic bones are types of _____ bones. irregular
The largest sesamoid bone is the _____. patella
Name the three functional classification of joints and their mobility: Synarthroses - immovable; amphiarthroses - slightly movable ; diarthroses - freely movable
Name the three types of fibrous joints and examples of each: Syndesmosis - inferior tibiofibular joint; Suture - cranial sutures; Gomphosis - roots of the teeth
Do fibrous joints have a cavity? What type of movement do they provide? What about cartilaginous? Fibrous and cartilaginous joints do not contain a cavity and are immovable.
Name the two types of cartilaginous joints and an example of each: Symphysis - pubic symphysis; Synchondrosis - epiphyseal plate
______ joints permit a wide range of motion and are all freely movable: Synovial
Name the six types of synovial joints and an example of each: Gliding - intercarpal and intertarsal joints; Hinge - elbow, knee and ankle; Ellipsoid - radiocarpal joints; Saddle - carpometacarpal joint of the thumb; Ball and Socket - hip and shoulder joint;
Rounded process at an articular extremity condyle
beaklike or crownlike process coranoid/coracoid
Ridgelike process: crest
Small smooth-surfaced process for articulation with another structure: facet
Hook-shaped process: hamulus
Expanded end of a long bone: head
Less prominent ridge than a crest; a linear elevation: Line
Club-shaped process: malleolus
Projection part or prominence: protuberance
Sharp process: spine
Long, pointed process: styloid
Large rounded and elevated process located at junction of neck and shaft of femur: trochanter
Small, rounded and elevated process: tubercle
Large, rounded and elevated process: tuberosity
Cleft or deep groove: fissure
Pit, fovia or hollow space: fossa
Shallow linear channel: groove
Tubelike passageway running within a bone: meatus
Indentation into a border of a bone: notch
Recess, groove, cavity or hollow space: sinus
Furrow, trench or fissure-like depression: sulcus
Fracture that does not break the skin: closed fracture
Serious fracture in which bones are not in anatomic alignment: displaced
Fracture in which bone retains its normal alignment: nondisplaced
Serious fracture in which the bone projects through the skin: open
Refers to the wall or lining of a body cavity: Parietal
Refers to the covering of an organ: Visceral
An open fracture is also known as an ______ fracture: compound
Refers to parts on the opposite side of the body: contralateral
During the _____ position the feet are higher than the head. trendelenburg
During the ______ position, the head is higher than the feet. fowlers
Circular movement of a limb: circumduction