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HA Ch. 23 (25)

The Digestive System

the alimentary canal conatains the GI tract or gastrointestinal tract
structures of the alimentary canal include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intesting, rectum, anal canal and anus
accessory digestive organs include the teeth, gallbladder, and various large digetive glands such as the salivary glands, liver and pancreas
the accessory digestive organs lie external to and connect the GI tract via ducts
6 essential activites of digestive processes include ingestion, mechanical digestion, propulsion, chemical digestion, absorption, defecation
mechanical digestion chewing, churning, segmentation
propulsion is movement of food through the GI tract
peristalsis: alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of musculature in the organ walls
chemical digestion involves enzymes secreted by digestive glands into the lumen of the GI tract
absorption is the transportation of digested end products from lumen to blood and lymph caps
peritoneum is the...membrane in the...which has a... serous...abdominopelvic cavity...parietal layer and a visceral layer
peritoneal cavity contains...which decreases... serous fluid...friction as the organs move
four tissue layers of the walls of GI tract (lumen outward) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
mucosa has three sublayers epithelial lining, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
epithelial lining of mucosa absorbs nutrients and secretes mucous
lamina propria is made of...whose capillaries... loose areolar or reticular CT...nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients
lamina propria contains MALT
muscularis mucosae is a...that produces... thin layer of smooth muscle...local movements of the mucosa
submucosa is the layer of...containing... CT...major blood and lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers
submucosa is the...between the... intermediate...loose areolar and dense irregular CT
muscularis externa is comprised of two layers of smooth muscle, which is responsible for perstalsis and segmentation
circular muscle layer is the...layer whose muscle fibiers orient around the... inner...circumference of the canal and squeezes the alimentary tube
longtiduinal muscle layer is the...layer whose fibers orient along the...and thus..the alimentary tube outer...lenght..lengthens
serosa is also the visceral peritoneum
serosa contains...on the outside and...on the inside simple squamous epithelium...areolar CT
parts of the GT tract not associated with the peritoneal cavity lack a..and have an... serosa...adventitia (ordinary fibrous CT)
nerve plexuses are networks of nerve fibers present in the tissue layers of the alimentary canal wall
myenteric nerve plexus innervates muscularis externa between the circular and longitudinal layers
myenteric nerve plex controls peristalsis and segmentation
submucosal nerve plexus extends inward and lies within the submucosa
submucosal nerve plex signals the glands in the mucosa to secrete and the muscularis mucosa to contract
the mouth is...lined mucous
regions/structures of the mouth vestibule, oral cavity proper, lips, cheeks, hard palate, and soft palate
the mouth has internal mucosa of epithelium and lamina propria only
the mouth has thin submucosa
the mouth has an external layer of muscle or bone
lining of the mouth thick stratified squamous epithelium
the tongue is a...constructed of... muscle..interlacing fascicles of skeletal muscle fibers
intrinsic muscles of the tongue change the shape of the tongue but not its position
extrinsic muscles of the tongue alter the position of the tongue
the salivary glands compound tubuloalveolar glands
the salivary glands' secretory cells are...(that produce...) and ...cells(produce...) serous cells (water secretion containing enzymes and ions of saliva)...mucous cells (mucus)
salivary glands ...mouth moisten...wets or moistens
salivary glands dissolves food chemicals so that they can be tasted
salivary glands bind food together into a bolus
salivary gland enzymes begin digestion of starches
bicarbonate buffer in saliva neutralizes acids produced by oral bacteria
saliva also contains bactericidal enzymes, antiviral substances, antibodies and a cynadie compound
small intrinsic salivary glands are scattered with the mucosa of the tongue, palate, lips and cheeks
saliva from the small intrinsic salivary glands keep mouth moist at all times
extrinsic salivary glands lie external to the mouth but connect to it via ducts
ex. salivary glands secrete saliva only during eating or in anticipation of a meal
parotid gland is the largest salivary gland
parotid gland lies anterior to the ear
parotid duct opens into the mouth
submandibular gland has a duct that opens directly lateral to the tongue
sublingual gland has...that open into the 10-12 ducts...mouth directly superior to the gland
the theeth lie in sockets (alveoli) in the gum-covered margins of the mandible and maxilla
mastication tears and grinds the food, breaking it into smaller fragments
the crown on a tooth is the exposed portion covered by 2.5 mm of enamel
the root of the tooth is located in the sockets
the pharynx contains the oropharyns and laryngopharynx
pharynx is the passageway for food, fluids and inhaled air
pharyngeal constrictors are skeletal muscles
the esophagus is that... muscular...propels swallowed food to the stomach
esophagus has all four tissue layers of the alimentary canal
the esophagus begins as a continuation of the... in the..region and descends through the...on the...and passes through the... pharynx...mid-neck...thorax...anterior surface of the vertebral column...esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm to enter the abdomen
cardiac orifice is the junction at which the esophagus joins the stomach
a cardiac sphincter acts to close off the lumen and prevent regurgitation of acidic stomach juices into the esophagus
what lines the junction of the esophagus and the stomach non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
the 1/3-1/3-1/3 rule of the esophageal muscles involves the...which consists of... muscularis external layer...skeletal muscle in the superior 1/3 of esophagus, a mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle in the middle 1/3, and smooth muscle in the inferior 1/3
the stomach is the..shaped...part of the GI tract j...widest
the stomach is the which... storage is churned and turned into a past called chyme
what is secreted into the stomach to start the breakdown of food proteins pepsinn and HCl
the stomach lies in the...of the peritoneal cavity; left...,...and... regions of the abdomen, directly inferior to the...and anterior to the... superior left...hypochondriac, diaphragm..spleen and pancreas
the cardiac region is the...shaped zone encircling... ring...cardiac orifice
the fundus is the stomach's dome tucked under the diaphragm
the body of the stomach is the large middle portion of the stomach
the pyloric region of the stomach is..shaped and contains the pyloric... funnel...antrum and canal
pylorus is the...of the stomach terminus
pyloric sphincter controls every entry of chyme into the intestine
greater curvature is the... convex left surface of the stomach, which opens into the greater omentum
lesser curvature is the concave right margin of the stomach which opens into the lesser omentum
rugae of mucosa has numerous...on internal surface of...which... longitudinal folds...empty stomach...flattens as the stomach fills
oblique layer of the muscularis externa is only present in the...more specifically... walls of the stomach...deep to the circular layer of the muscularis externa
the lining epithelium of the stomach is comprised of simple columnar cells
the epithelial layer contains increased amounts of goblet cells which secrete bicarbonate buffered mucus that protects the stomach wall from pepsin and HCl
the small intestine is the longest part of the GI tract
the small intestine is the site of most enzymatic digestion and virtually all absorption of nutrients
the three subdivisions of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
duodenum makes up ...of the SI length 5%
duodemun receives...from the...via the digestive enzymes...pancreas...pancreatic duct
duodenum also receives...from the...via the... biles...liver and gallbladder...bile duct
the main pancreatic duct and bile duct join to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter in the small intestine
the ampulla opens into the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla
the jejunum makes up... of the SI 40% (superior left)
the ileum makes up... 55% (inferior right)
the....are structural modifications of the wall of the SI that... plicae circulares, villi, microvilli...amplify its absorptive surface
the circular folds or plicae circulares are permanent...of the... transverse ridges...mucosa and submucosa
plicae circulares increases the surface area
the folds of the plicae circulares force spiral through increase... chyme...lumen..absorption time
villi are the...projects of the mucosa finger-like
villi are covered by a...made up primarily of...specialized... simple columnar epithelium...absorptive cells...absorbing digested nutrients
villi allow enter the... fats..lacteals
through the villi, all end products of...enter the... nutrient digestion...blood capillaries
microvilli are found on... apical surfaces of the absorptive cells
microvilli increase absortive surfaces
microvilli have plasma membranes that contains enzymes that complete the final stages of breakdown of nutrient molecules
all typical layers of the...occur in the... GI tract...SI
the lining epithelium occurs on the villi and the surface between the villi
absorptive cells contain high number of mitochondria, goblet cells and enteroendocrine cells
intestinal cryps are mucosa tubes between the villi
epithelial cells lining the crypts secrete...which is a... intestinal juice...watery liquid that mixes with chyme in the intestinal lumen
inner epithelia are completely...due to the... renewed every 3-6 days...destructive effects of the digestive enzymes
the last major organ of the GI tract is the large intestine
the material that reaches the large intestine is largely..that contains few... digested residue...nutrients
residue remains in the LI for 12-24 hours
little additional...of food occurs in the LI breakdown
main function of the LI is to absorb water and electrolytes from the digested mass resulting in semisolid feces
propulsion is...; mass...movements sluggish and weak...peristalic
teniae coli in the LI consist of three longitudinal strips, spaced at equal intervals around the circumfrance of the cecum and colon
teniae coli function in maintaining the mucle tone and providing support
teniae coli, as a result, cause the LI to pucker in sacs
haustra are sacs formed by teniae coli
epiploic appendages are...filled pouches of... fat...visceral peritoneum hanging from the LI
the epiploic appendages have...functions unknown
the cecum is located in the right iliac fossa
the cecum forms the junction at which the ileum of the small intestine opens into the large intestine
ileocecal valve controls chyme entering the LI
vermiform appendix is that opens into the... blind...posteromedial wall of the cecum
the vermiform appendix contains large masses of lymphoid tissue in its wall
the vermiform appendix probably functions in gathering antigens and neutralizing harmful pathogens
colon has distinct..including the... segments...ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
the ascending colon is the level of the... right colic flexure...right kidney
transverse colon is the...directly anterior to the... left colic flexure...spleen
sigmoid colon is...shaped s
rectum has no tenia coli
rectum's longitudinal muscle layer is complete and well developed
anal canal is...long and includes the... 3 cm...external anal sphincter
villia are absent in the LI
at the microscopic level, the intestinal crypts of the LI are present
goblet cells are more...for increased... abundant...mucous secretion
absorptive cells of the LI take in water and electrolytes
the liver is the largest gland in the body
the liver produces bile to break down fats in the SI
the liver's metabolic functions are carried out by hepatocytes or liver cells
the liver picks up glucose from blood returning from GI tract and stores in glycogen
the liver processes fats and amino acids
the liver stores certain vitamins
the liver detoxifies many poisons and drugs in the blood
the liver makes the blood proteins
the liver has two hepatic surfaces including the diaphragmatic and visceral surfaces
the diaphragmatic surface makes up the...surfaces of the liver which directly and indirectly contact the... superior, anterior, and posterior...diaphragm
the visceral surface of the liver is the.. inferior surface
the bare area of the liver is fused to the diaphragm and devoid of peritoneum
the four lobes of the liver are divided by the falciform ligament and the fissure
the four lobes of the liver are the right and left, caudate and quadrate lobes
the falciform ligament is the...on the... ventral mesentary...diaphragmatic surface
the fissure is on the...and marks the... ventral surface...division between the right and left lobes
on the posterior surface of the liver, the impression left by the....marks the... IVC...division between the right lobe and the small caudate lobe
the quadrate lobe lies...sandwhiched between the... inferior to the caudate lobe...left lobe and the gallbladder
porta hepatis is the liver where most of the major vessels and neves... gateway...enter and leave the liver
the right and left hepatic ducts contain...and exit the porta hepatis and fuse to form the... bile...common hepatic duct
the liver microscopically contains...which are the basic... lobule..functional unit of the liver
there are...lobules in the liver millions
lobules have hexagonal solid structures
the liver consists of plates of liver cells radiating out from a central vcein
...exist in each liver lobule six portal triads
the central veins of each lobule ultimately merge to form the right and left hepatic veins which drain blood from the liver andreturn it to the systemic ciruit via the IVC
the portal is located at almost every corner of the six sided liver lobule and consists of branches of three main vessels
the portal consists of a portal ateriole, portal venule and the bile duct
the portal arteriole is a branch of the hepatic artery proper
the portal venule is a branch of the hepatic portal vein
the bile duct is a branch of the hepatic bile duct
the bile canaliculi the..that lead to the.. bile..bile ductules...portal triads
the bile ducts from each lobule unite to form the... right and left hepatic ducts
arterial blood supplies hepatocytes with oxygen
venous blood delivers substances from the intestines, for processing by the hepatoctyes
the kupffer cells are..shaped cells found inside the... which... star...sinusoids...destroy bacteral and other foreign particles in the blood
the gallbladder is a muscular sac in a... shallow depression on the visceral surface of the liver
the gallbladder is divided into three regions incluidng the fundus, body and neck
the gallbladder stores and concentrates bile that is produced by the liver
honeycomb pattern of mucosal foldings internally enables expansion
the cystic duct of the gallbladder leads from the..toward the... gallbladder...porta hepatis
the cystic duct joins form the...which empties into the... common hepatic duct...common bile duct...duodenum
at the duodenum, a muscular...surrounds the lumen of the common bile duct and the... hepatopancreate sphincter...duodenal ampulla
the duodenal ampulla opens into the...which is a small.. duodenum....hepatoduodenal papilla...raised projection
the concentration of the hepatopancreatic sphincter seals off the passageway and prevents bile from entering the small intestine
the pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions
pancreas' exocrine function produces most of the digestive enzymes and buffers in the SI
pancreas' endocrine function produces hormones that regulate the levels of sugar in the blood (insulin and glucagon)
the pancreas is..shaped with three regions... tadpole...head, body and tail
the head of the pancreas is ...and lies within the... broad...loop formed by the duodenum as it leaves the pylorus
the body of the pancreas is ...and extends... slender...toward the spleen
the tail of the pancreas is...and... short...bluntly rounded
the main pancreatic duct extends through the length of the pancreas
the main pancreatic duct joins form the... bile duct...hepatopancreatic ampulla which empties into the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla
accessory pancreatic duct lies in the...and drains into the... head of the pancreas...duodenum at a separate papilla, the lesser duodenal papilla
the pancreatic arteris and pancreaticduodenal arteris are major branches from the...whose branches through which arterial blood reaches the... splenic, superior mesenteric, and common hepatic arteries...pancreas
the splenic vein and its branches... drain the pancreas
partition of...divide the pancreatic tissue into.. CT...lobules
the pancreas is a compound tubuloacinar gland
the pancreatic acini; within each.. the ducts branch... lobule...repeatedly before ending in these blind pockets
the pancreatic acini are lined with simple cuboidal epithelium
the pancreatic acini secrete...into the... pancreatic juices (mixture of water, ions, and pancreatic digestive enzymes)...duodenum
the pancreatic enzymes in most of pancreatic juices...digestive work in the SI...breaking down ingested materials into small molecules suitable for absorption
the pancreatic ducts a...which is important in... buffers (primarily sodium bicarbonate)...water solution...the acid in chyme and stabilizing the pH of the intestinal contents
pancreatic islets are scattered between the acini
islets account for only..of the cellular population ofthe pancreas 1%
the islets perform the...of the pancrease by... endocrine function...producing the hormones insulin and glucagon
the mesenteries are...sheets of...that connect ... double-layerd...peritoneum...peritoneal organs to the dorsal and ventral body wall
the mesenteries suppor the abdominal digesitve organs
the messenteries also store fat and carry blood vessels and nerves
visceral organs that lack a mesentery and are fused to the posterior body wall are called retroperitoneal organs
ventral mesenteries include the falciform ligament and the lesser omentum
falciform ligament is in the..and binds the... liver..anterior aspect of the liver to anterior abdominal wall and the diaphragm
lesser omentum is in the..and exxtends from the... liver..fissure of the liver and porta hepatis to the lesser curvature of the stomach
dorsal mesenteries include the greater omentum, mesentary proper, transverse mesocolon, sigmoid mesocolon, and lesser omentum
the greater omentum is in the..and connects the stomach...greater curvature of the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall in a roundabout way
the greater omentum extends inferiorly to cover the transverse colon and the coils of the SI like a butterfly net
the mesentery proper is in the ileum and jejunum
the transverse mesocolon is in the transverse colon
the sigmoid mesocolon is in the sigmoid colon
the lesser omentum is on the ventral surface of the liver
Created by: handrzej



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