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EXAM 2 True/False

1. An example of a FIRST CLASS LEVER would be the hyperextension of the head by the trapezius. TRUE
2. Many of the EXTENSOR muscles originate on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. TRUE
3. Between the skin and the muscle mass is a layer of connective tissue called the SUPERFICIAL fascia. TRUE
4. The antagonist of the brachialis muscle is the TRICEPS BRACHII. TRUE
6. The most common type of level in the body is the FIRST CLASS LEVER. FALSE
7. The action of ADDUCTION of the arm at the shoulder is caused by the action of the pectoralis minor. FALSE
8. Muscles originating on the medial epicondyle of the humerus normally tend to be FLEXORS of the wrist, hand, or fingers. TRUE
9. The action of flexion of the wrist by the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is an example of a CLASS 3 LEVER. TRUE
10. The VASTUS INTERMEDIUS muscle flexes the hip and extend the knee. FALSE
11. The RETINACULUM is a thickening of fascia that holds strucutres in place. TRUE
12. The trapezius muscle in humans ORIGINATES on the acromian process, spine of scapula, and clavicle. FALSE
13. The conspicous sheath of dense fibrous connective tissue covering the muscle mass of the forearm is the ANTEBRACHIAL FASCIA. TRUE
14. The quadriceps of the femur insert on various borders of the TIBIA. FALSE
15. The proximal part of the upper limb is called the arm or BRACHIUM. TRUE
16. In skeletal muscles the basic unit of contraction is called a TENDON OF INSERTION. FALSE
17. The trapezius muscle, in the human, inserts on the ULNA. FALSE
18. Muscles that are coagonists in causing flexion of the brachium at the shoulder are the BICEPS BRACHII, BRACHIALIS, AND THE CORACOBRACHIALIS. FALSE
19. Usually, the tendon of a muscle attached to the more movable of the two bones is called the tendon of INSERTION. TRUE
20. The brachialis muscle (brachialis anticus) inserts on the radius. FALSE
21. These following muscles aid in the movement of scapular UPWARD rotation: trapezius and serratus anterior. TRUE
22. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and the CORACOBRACHIALIS are the rotator cuff muscles. FALSE
23. The SHORT HEAD of the biceps femoris originates on the linea aspera of the femur. TRUE
24. The Achilles tendon inserts on the TALUS bone. FALSE
25. The PALMARIS LONGUS muscle functions to tense the palmar fascia (palmar aponeurosis) of the hand and also contributes to the flexion of the wrist. TRUE
26. Three muscles in the cat represent the trapezius muscle of humans. TRUE
27. Major muscles attaching to the vetetral border of the scapula include the SERRATUS ANTERIOR AND RHOMBOID (RHOMBOIDEUS) MAJOR. TRUE
28. The sheet of dense fibrous connective tissue that connects the radius to the ulna along much of their lengths is called an INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE. TRUE
29. The sternocleidomastoid muscle inserts on the SPHENOID bone. FALSE
30. An example of a MULTIPENNATE muscles are the deltoid and the serratus anetrior. TRUE
31. A muscle that flexes the elbow and supinates the hand is the BICEPS BRACHII. TRUE
32. The thick sheet (strip) of consicuously dense fibrous connective tissue that runs along the lateral side of the thigh is claled the ILIOTIBIAL BAND. TRUE
33. Maintaining tension on the patella is primarily accomplished by the action of the ADDUCTOR MUSCLES OF THE THIGH. FALSE
34. The tendons of insertion of the EXTENSOR DIGITORUM COMMUNIS corss the writs through the carpal tunnel. FALSE
35. The TIBIALIS ANTERIOR muscle inverts the foot. TRUE
36. The system of dense fibrous connective tissue that covers the muscle mass of the thigh is the FASCIA LATA. TRUE
37. Weak places in the structure of the abdominal wall occur at the UMBILICUS AND INGUINAL CANALS. TRUE
38. The GRACILIS muscle flexes the hip and flexes the knee and laterally rotates the femur. FALSE
39. The following muscles insert on the pes anserine: SARTORIUS, GRACILIS, SEMITENDINOSUS, SEMIMEMBRANOSUS. FALSE
40. An APONEUROSIS is a broad, flat, tendinous sheet. TRUE
41. The biceps brachii flexes the shoulder and EXTENDS the elbow. FALSE
42. The tendons of insertion of the flexor digitorum muscles are held close to the wrist by the POSTERIOR CARPAL RETINACULUM. FALSE
43. The GLUTEUS MAXIMUS muscle adducts the thigh at the hip. TRUE
44. The muscle of the antebrachium that inserts on the anterior side of the distal phalanx of digits 2-5 is the EXTENSOR DIGITORUM COMMUNIS. FALSE
45. The following muscles aid in the flexion of the arm at the elbow: BICEPS BRACHII, BRACHIALIS, AND BRACHIORADIALIS. TRUE
46. The triceps brachii has its insertion on the olecranon process of the ulna. TRUE
47. Between the skin and the muscle mass is a layer of connective tissue called the DEEP fascia. FALSE
48. Distinct tendons ARE ALWAYS PRESENT on muscles. FALSE
49. The biceps brachii is and ANTAGONIST to the triceps brachii. TRUE
50. Muscles with their origins on the axial skeleton and their insertions on the appendicular skeleton are called INTRINSIC muscles. FALSE
51. Major muscles inserting on the vertebral border of the scapula include the serratus anterior and LEVATOR SCAPULAE. FALSE
52. The action of adduction of the arm at the shoulder is caused by action of the PECTORALIS MINOR. FALSE
53. The PRONATOR TERES inserts on the styloid process of the radius. FALSE
54. The tendons of insertion of the flexor digitorum muscles are held close to the wrist bone by the ANTERIOR CARPAL RETINACULUM. TRUE
55. The PALMARIS LONGUS muscle functions to tense the palmar fascia of the hand. TRUE
56. Tendons of insertion of the EXTENSOR DIGITORUM MUSCLE OF THE ANTEBRACHIUM pass over the heads of the metacarpal bones. TRUE
57. Muscles originating on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus normally tend to function as PRONATORS of the wrist or hand. FALSE
58. The trunk is composed of the THORAX AND ABDOMEN. TRUE
59. The anterior part of the cat’s trunk is suspended in a sling formed by the SERRATUS ANTERIOR muscle. TRUE
60. Intercostal muscles are INTRINSIC to the thorax. TRUE
61. The origin of the vastus medialis muscle is the LINEA ALBA. FALSE
62. The VASTUS INTERMEDIUS muscle flex the thigh at the hip and extends the leg at the knee. FALSE
63. The GRACILIS muscle flexes the thigh at the hip and flexes the leg at the knee and laterally rotates the femur. FALSE
64. The largest of the muscles that adduct the thigh at the hip is the ADDUCTOR LONGUS. FALSE
65. The major adductors of the thigh are the adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis and the TENSOR FASCIA LATA. FALSE
66. The arches of the foot are an example of the application of SYNOVIAL GLIDING articulations. TRUE
67. The large nerve that runs through the muscles of the posterior thigh is the SCIATIC NERVE. TRUE
68. The dense fibrous connective tissue covering the gluteus maximus is the CRURALfascia. FALSE
69. Major fat deposits of the thigh typically may be found at the INNER thigh. TRUE
70. Tension on the patella and extension of the leg at the knee is accomplished mainly by action of the HAMSTRING muscles. FALSE
71. Hamstring muscles include the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and GLUTEUS MAXIMUS. FALSE
72. The knee joint is an example of a BALL AND SOCKET joint. FALSE
73. The muscles contributing to the structure of the tendon of the Achilles are the gastrocnemius, soleus, and POPLITEUS. FALSE
74. The system of dense connective tissue covering the surface of the leg is the CRURAL fascia. TRUE
75. The soleus muscle causes an action called DORSIFLEXION of the foot at the ankle. FALSE
76. The GASTROCNEMIUS muscle causes flexion of the knee and plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle. TRUE
77. The peroneus longus and peroneus brevis use the LATERAL MALLEOLUS as pulley to redirect the direction of their force. TRUE
78. Lifting the body weight vertically over the ball of the foot by contraction of the soleus muscle is an example of a THIRD class lever. FALSE
79. The sole of the foot is covered by a system of dense fibrous connective tissue called the PLANTAR PAONEUROSIS. TRUE
80. The LATERAL LONGITUDINAL arch is supported by contractions of the tibialis anterior, and tibialis posterior muscle. FALSE
81. Muscles of the leg are found in one of FOUR fascial compartments. TRUE
82. Muscle found in the anterior fascial compartment of the leg include the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, and PERONEUS LONGUS. FALSE
83. The muscles that extend the toes are held close to the anklebones by the CRUCIATE RETINACULUM. TRUE
84. The tendons of insertion of the peroneus brevis and longus are held in place by the FLEXOR retinaculum. FALSE
85. A major muscle that raises the toes off the ground, by dorsiflexion of the foot, when we step forward is the TIBIALIS POSTERIOR. FALSE
86. The EPIMYSIUM, PERIMYSIUM, and ENDOMYSIUM all come together to create the tendon of the muscle. TRUE
87. Certain tendons, such as some of the wrist and the ankle, are enclosed by tubes of fibrous connective tissue called APONEUROSIS SHEATHS. FALSE
88. Muscle fiber contracion results from the sliding movements of the protein filaments ACTIN AND MYOSIN. TRUE
89. The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber is called the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM. FALSE
90. Actions, such as walking and sprinting, are taken care by the FAST OXIDATIVE-GLYCOLYTIC FIBERS of the muscle system. TRUE
91. Cardiac muscle stays contracted 10-15 times longer that skeletal, allowing the cardiac muscle to ATTAIN TETANUS FASTER than skeletal muscle. FALSE
92. Within each fascile of skeletal muscules are MUSCLE FIBERS. TRUE
94. Muscles with either parallel or fusiform arrangments of the fasiculi tend to have LONGER fibers than pennate muscles. TRUE
95. Neurons and blood vessels, are FOUND WITHIN the fascicles of the skeletal system. TRUE
96. Slow oxidative fibers have RED COLORED muscle fibers, while fast glycolytic fibers have WHITE COLORED muscle fibers. TRUE
97. The type of muscle fiber that allows for long endurance in activity is the FAST GLYCOLYTIC FIBERS. FALSE
98. Satellite cells are MYOBLASTS that remained in their stem cell state in mature skeletal muscle cells. TRUE
99. The A-band will ALWAYS INCLUDE the H-zone, Zone of overlap, and M-line. FALSE
100. THe embryonic cells that unite to form muscle fibers are called MYOBLASTS. TRUE
101. People who had heart attacks replace their infarcted (dead) cardiac cells with non contractile fibrous scar tissue due to our INABILITY to repair damage from heart attacks. TRUE
102. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle fibers HAVE EPIMYSIUM as connective tissue. FALSE
103. The protein that allows the muscle to obtain oxygen, so that the mitochondira can create ATP, is called the MYOGLOBIN. TRUE
104. Muscles that have muscle fibers attaching obliquely to their tendon of insertion are said to have PENNATE ARCHITECTURE. TRUE
105. Between the skin and the muscle mass is a layer of connective tissue called the SUPERFICIAL fascia. TRUE
106. Muscles can go through the process of HYPERPLASIA to increase in size. FALSE
107. CARDIAC muscle tissue is found in the walls of most visceral organs. FALSE
108. Smooth muscle tissue can be found in blood vessles, organs, and ATTACHED TO HAIR FOLLICLES. TRUE
109. The MOTOR END PLATE is where the muscle SENDS responses to the neuron. FALSE
110. The TENDON of skeletal muscles are only derived from the endomysium. FALSE
111. The skeletal muscle, during development, is derived from the myotome of the somite. TRUE
112. Intercalated discs are found only in SMOOTH muscle tissue. FALSE
113. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers (cells) are multi-nucleated, excluding smooth muscle fibers. FALSE
114. TROPONIN binds to Ca to move TROPOMYOSIN from the Myosin-binding site. TRUE
115. When atheletes work out in an attempt to build increased muscle mass they are increasing the number of skeletal muscle fibers in responding muscles. FALSE
116. SMOOTH muscle tissue has spindle-shaped cells with single nuclei in each cell. TRUE
117. The TRANSVERSE TUBULES release Ca to enter the sarcomere from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. FALSE
118. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles take part in voluntary movement.
119. The sarcomere, is measured from I-BAND TO I-BAND. FALSE
120. In skeletal muscle tissue the individual muscle fibers are found in bundles called MYOFIBIRLS. FALSE
121. Rigor morits is the rigidity of the body after death since the myosin heads cannot be released due to the ABUNDANCE of ATP in the body. FALSE
122. SKELETAL muscle is under voluntary control and has prominent cross striations that are visible under a light microscope. TRUE
123. Muscles aid in the movement of blood and lymph throughout the body. TRUE
124. The sarcolemma is the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber. TRUE
125. Hypotonia is the INCREASE of muscle tone, while Hypertonia is the DECREASE of muscle tone. FALSE
126. The DENSE BODIES of a smooth muscle cell are functionally similar to the Z discs in striated muscle fibers. TRUE
127. When ATP attaches to the myosin head, it is released from the actin of the thin filament. TRUE
128. Some of the functions of muscular tissue are: PRODUCING HEAT, MOVEMENT, AND ACTION POTENTIALS. FALSE
129. MYOFIBIRLS, SATELLITE CELLS, AND MITOCHONDRIA and packed within the endomysium. FALSE
130. The H-ZONE is where only the thick filament can be found in the sarcomere. TRUE
131. Visceral smooth muscle tissue is LESS COMMON than multiunit smooth muscle. FALSE
132. CARDIAC muscle tissue characteristically has branching muscle fibers. TRUE
133. One motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it activates is called a MYONEURAL JUNCTION. FALSE
134. When skeletal muscle tissue contracts the band/zone that becomes shorter is called the A-BAND. FALSE
135. The organs of the muscular system are composed of SKELETAL muscle tissue. TRUE
136. The stomach is normally considered to be ante peritoneal in location. FALSE
137. The pericardial cavity is located within the MEDIASTINUM. TRUE
138. The visceral peritoneum lines the ABDOMINAL WALL. FALSE
139. The greater omentum is INFERIOR to the pelvic cavity. FALSE
140. The mediastinum is a DOUBLE membrane that divides the thoracic cavity into right and left regions. TRUE
141. The HEART lies between the double walls of the mediastinal septum. TRUE
142. The elongated lobes of the thyroid gland lie to either side of the trachea just SUPERIOR to the larynx. FALSE
143. The outer surface of the small intestine is covered by a thin membrane called PARIETAL MUCOSA. FALSE
144. The transcerse colon is suspended from the abdominal wall by a membrane called the MESOCOLON. TRUE
145. The anterior body cavities are derived from the CELOM. TRUE
146. The PERITONEUM is essentially the same kind of membrane as the pleura. TRUE
147. The MESENTERY binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall. TRUE
148. The parietal pleura are thin membranes made up of SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM resting on a basement membrane. FALSE
149. The ILEUM is retroperitoneal in its position. FALSE
150. The stomach normally lies JUST SUPERIOR to the diaphragm. FALSE
151. In humans, the small intestine is suspended in part from the dorsal body wall by THE MESENTERY PROPER. TRUE
152. In the thoracic cavity, the pleural membranes are kept moist by secretions from mucous glands. FALSE
153. The inner surface of the small intestine is covered by a thing membranous layer of tissue called the VISCERAL SEROSA. FALSE
154. The THYMUS gland is found within the mediastinum, just superior to the heart. TRUE
155. The thoracic cavity is lined by serosa called the PARIETAL PERITONEUM. FALSE
156. The posterior body cavities lie within the vertebral column and THORAX. FALSE
157. The OMENTAL BURSA is a potential space present inside the greater omentum. TRUE
158. The larynx lies just INFERIOR to the trachea in the midline of the neck. FALSE
159. The serosal sac in which the heart lies is called the EPICARDIUM. FALSE
160. The VISCERAL PLEURA is a thin membrane that covers the external surface of the lungs. TRUE
161. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelic cavity by the DIAPHRAGM. TRUE
162. The pleural cavity contains the pericardium. FALSE
163. The abdomincal cavity contains the small intestine, large intestine, stomach, and BLADDER. FALSE
164. The common bile duct, hepatic VEINS, and hepatic portal vein travel to or from the liver through the lesser omentum. FALSE
165. The ventral bodies include the THORACIC, abdominal, and pelvic cavities. TRUE
166. The VISCERAL LAYER covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities. TRUE
167. The abdominal aorta and vena cava vein are located in the abdominal region in a retroperitoneal position. TRUE
168. The celomic cavities are closed spaces except in the FEMALE. FALSE
169. Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and lymph nodes are found within the LESSER OMENTUM. TRUE
170. The mesocolon binds the large intestine to the POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL. TRUE
171. The PARIETAL PERITONEUM is a serosa that lines the abdominal wall. TRUE
172. The DIAPHRAGM is a thin disc shaped muscle that divides the anterior body cavity into thoracic and abdominal regions. TRUE
173. In humans, the urinary bladder is conspicuously suspended WITHIN THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY. FALSE
174. MESENTERIES are strong serosal membranes that suspend organs of the reproductive system from the body wall. FALSE
175. The kidneys are normally considered to be RETROPERITONEAL in location. TRUE
176. Epigastric, Left HYPOCHONDRIAC, right lumbar and umbilical regions are part of the abdominopelvic regions. TRUE
177. The LESSER OMENTUM is a double serosal membrane that characteristically stores SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF BODY FAT. FALSE
178. The pulmonary ligaments are strong membranes that hold the lungs to the VENTRAL thoracic wall. TRUE
179. The parietal pleura are MUSCOUS MEMBRANES that line the outer walls of the thoracic cavity. FALSE
180. The visceral pleura is a thin membrane made up of STRATIFIES SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM. FALSE
181. The movement of the viscera is aided by the PARIETAL FLUID. FALSE
182. The PARIETAL PLEURA is a thin membrane that covers the external surface of the lungs. FALSE
183. The GREATER OMENTUM is a strong serosa that suspends the transverse colon from the greater curvature of the stomach in humans. TRUE
184. The space within the abdominal cavity of embryos is also called the CELOM. TRUE
185. MESENTERIES are strong serosal membranes that suspend organs of the digestive system from the body wall. TRUE
186. The hear lies within a narrow space under the parietal pericardium that is called the MEDIASTINUM. FALSE
187. The EXTERNAL carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagosympathetic nerve lay in common sheaths on each side of the trachea. FALSE
188. The heart lies within the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM. TRUE
189. A distinct anatomical separation between the abdominal and pelvic cavities IS PRESENT. FALSE
190. The GREATER OMENTUM originates from the greater curvature of the stomach and hangs down anteriorly over the abdominal viscera. TRUE
191. The right pleural cavity is LARGER than the left pleural cavity. TRUE
192. The soft organs found within the anterior body cavities are called the VISCERA. TRUE
193. The CORONARY MESENTERY (LIGAMENT) attaches the liver to the diaphragm. TRUE
194. The "hepatic veins" carry nutrient-rich blood to the sinusoids of the liver. FALSE
195. Most of the glands of the digestive system are classified as "exocrine". TRUE
196. The "ileocecal valve" regulates flow of digestive tube contents between the small intestine and the large intestine. TRUE
197. Bacteria of the large intestine may be involved in the final stage of digestion in humans. TRUE
198. The opening of the pancreatic duct into the duodenum occurs at the "cystic duct". FALSE
199. Three anatomical mechanisms that significantly increase the internal surface area of the digestive system mucosa include the following: "vili, microvilli and plicae circulares." TRUE
200. Mucus in the intestine is secreted by goblet cells in the mucosa and by duodenal glands (Brunner's)in the submucosa. TRUE
201. The stomach lining characteristically is covered by villi. FALSE
202. The palatine tonsils are located in the "uvula", at the posterior border of the soft palate. FALSE
203. The internal anal sphincter is composed of "striated" muscle tissue. FALSE
204. The muscularis layer of the esophagus contains only smooth muscle tissue throughout its length. FALSE
205. The opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes is the "esophageal hiatus." TRUE
206. The salivary glands have ducts that empty directly into the "pharynx". FALSE
207. The tongue is attached anteriorly to the floor of the oral cavity by a fold membrane called the "labial frenulum". FALSE
208. Plicae circulares, villi, and lacteals are all characteristically found in the small intestine. TRUE
209. Kupffer's cells are normally found within the "pancreas." FALSE
210. The "liver" produces the hormones somatostatin and insulin. FALSE
211. Blood, from the absorptive surfaces (villi) of the small intestine is delivered directly to the liver by the "hepatic artery." FALSE
212. The extensive, double sheet of serosa that covers the viscera anteriorly is called the "greater" omentum. TRUE
213. The four lobes characteristic of the human liver are the right, left, quadrate and "superior" lobes. FALSE
214. Inside the body cavity the digestive organs are supported or suspended by structures called "mesenteries". TRUE
215. The main regions of the stomach are the cardia, fundus, cecum and pylorus. FALSE
216. The only digestive organ normally attached to the anterior abdominal wall, in humans, is the "liver." TRUE
217. "Rugae" are folds in the mucous membrane lining the interior of the stomach. TRUE
218. The small intestine is generally "shorter" than the large intestine in the average adult human. FALSE
219. The common bile duct, hepatic arteries, and hepatic portal vein travel in the "greater" omentum to the liver. FALSE
220. The outermost layer of the esophagus is called the "tunica serosa." FALSE
221. Bile is manufactured by the "gall bladder." FALSE
222. The organ of the digestive system that receives both arterial (oxygenated) and venous (deoxygenated) blood is the "stomach." FALSE
223. Enzymatic breakdown of food is a form of mechanical digestion. FALSE
224. Bile from the liver and gall bladder empties directly into the digestive tube at the level of the "stomach." FALSE
225. The human liver is normally composed of "four" more or less distinct lobes. TRUE
226. Bile from the gall bladder passes through the "cystic duct" and empties directly into the common bile duct on its way to the digestive tube. TRUE
227. The externally visible pouches of the large intestine that give it a puckered appearance are called "epiploic appendages." FALSE
228. The mucosa of the esophagus is composed of "stratified columnar epithelium". FALSE
229. The structural units of function within the lobes of the liver are called "lobules." TRUE
230. An epithelial membrane called a "serosa" lines the inside of the digestive tube. FALSE
231. The "papillae" of the tongue contain the taste buds. TRUE
232. The "vestibule" of the oral region is the space that extends from the teeth and gums to the cheek and lips. TRUE
233. The coronary ligament attaches the “heart” to the diaphragm. FALSE
234. The “sublingual” gland is the large salivary gland lying under the skin, anterior to the ears in humans. FALSE
235. In the wall of the small intestine the tunica muscularis consists of two layers of smooth muscle cells, an outer longitudinal and an inner circular layer. TRUE
236. The layer of tissue that covers the outer surface of digestive organs within the abdominopelvic cavity is called the "parietal peritoneum". FALSE
237. The most superior part or region of the stomach is called the "pylorus." FALSE
238. The conspicuous longitudinal folds seen on the inside of the stomach wall are called "gastric rugae." TRUE
239. "Taenia coli" are more or less conspicuous bands of longitudinally arranged, smooth muscle tissue in the wall of the colon. TRUE
240. In the stomach chief cells secrete "hydrochloric acid." FALSE
241. The “posterior” body cavities develop from the embryonic celom. FALSE
242. The posterior body cavities lie within the vertebral column and “thorax”. FALSE
243. The viscera are the organs of the “anterior” body cavity. TRUE
244. A distinct separation between the abdominal and pelvic cavities “is apparent.” FALSE
245. The mediastinal septum is a “single” membrane. FALSE
246. The heart and pericardium “lies within” the mediastinal septum. TRUE
247. A serosa is characterized by the presence of an epithelial membrane consisting of “simple columnar” epithelium. FALSE
248. The “parietal pleura” is a serosa that lines the inner walls of the thorax. TRUE
249. The “visceral pleura” lies on the exterior surface of the lungs. TRUE
250. The pulmonary ligament suspends he lungs from the “ventral” thoracic wall. FALSE
251. Serosal membranes called “mesenteries” suspend organs of the digestive system from the posterior body wall. TRUE
252. The kidney and ureter are “retroperitoneal” in location. TRUE
253. The thymus gland lies in the “mediastinum” superior to the heart. TRUE
254. The thorax is separated from the abdominal cavity by the “mediastinum.” FALSE
255. The “sublingual” gland is the largest salivary gland in humans. FALSE
256. The “palate” forms the roof o the mouth and separates the respiratory from digestive passageways. TRUE
257. The soft palate of the cat “has” a uvula extending from its free border. FALSE
258. The “pharyngeal” tonsils lie in the tonsilar fossae between the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine arches. FALSE
259. The “labial frenulum” extends from the ventral midline of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. FALSE
260. Lingual tonsils are found on the “anterior, superior” side of the tongue. FALSE
261. The outer hard material making up a tooth is called “cementum.” FALSE
262. The “temporalis and masseter” muscles elevate the mandible at the temporomandibular joint, and function in chewing. TRUE
263. The epithelium lining the esophagus is classified as “transitional.” FALSE
264. The esophagus normally has “a collapsed” lumen when food is not passing through it. TRUE
265. The inferior valve of the esophagus is the “pyloric” valve. FALSE
266. The epithelium lining the small intestine is classified as “stratified squamous.” FALSE
267. A third, oblique layer, of involuntary muscle is found in the wall of the “colon”. FALSE
268. The most superior part of the stomach is the “fundus.” TRUE
269. The part of the esophagus found in the neck and thorax “lacks” a tunica serosa. TRUE
270. The “jejunum” receives ducts from the liver and pancreas. FALSE
271. “Villi” are anatomical structures that facilitate nutrient absorption and increase the surface area of the small intestine. TRUE
272. The “duodenum” is distinguished from the other regions of the small intestine by the presence of Peyer’s patches. FALSE
273. The “pyloric sphincter” is found between the ileum and ascending colon. FALSE
274. Rugae are folds of tissue seen along the inner walls of the “small intestine.” FALSE
275. The greater omentum originates, or attaches, from the “fundus” of the stomach. FALSE
276. The cecum is a conspicuous, sack-like, part of the “small intestine” in humans. FALSE
277. The mesocolon is the mesentery that supports the “ascending” colon. FALSE
278. “Taenia coli” are conspicuous bands of longitudinal, smooth muscle in the wall of the colon. TRUE
279. Small tags of fat often seen attached to the external surface of the colon are called “haustra.” FALSE
280. The “small intestine” is the longest part of alimentary canal. TRUE
281. The vermiform appendix opens directly into the “sigmoid colon.” FALSE
282. The “left colic” flexure lies directly below the liver. FALSE
283. The descending colon is located in a “retroperitoneal” position. TRUE
284. The cat “has” a conspicuous vermiform appendix. FALSE
285. The “external” anal sphincter is under involuntary control. FALSE
286. The union of the cystic and common hepatic ducts forms “Stensen’s duct.” FALSE
287. The common bile duct passes through the “lesser” omentum to reach the duodenum. TRUE
288. The liver receives blood from the hepatic artery and “hepatic portal vein.” TRUE
289. The anatomical unit of liver function is called the “lobule.” TRUE
290. Liver bile is mainly stored in the “hepatopancreatic ampulla.” FALSE
291. Sinusoids of the liver lobules are similar to capillaries in that they are lined with “endothelial” cells. TRUE
292. Kupffer’s cells are phagocytic cells characteristically found in the “pancreas.” FALSE
293. The pancreas is found in a “retroperitoneal” position in human abdominal cavity. TRUE
294. The part of the pancreas pointing toward the spleen is called the “head. FALSE
295. The smooth external covering over the small intestine is the “visceral pleura.” FALSE
296. The hepatopancreatic duct empties into the “jejunum” at the duodenal papilla. FALSE
297. The liver is suspended from the anterior body wall by the “falciform” ligament. TRUE
298. Cardiac contraction requires signals from the autonomic nervous system in a living human heart. FALSE
299. The primary function of the papillary muscles of the heart are to "increase blood pressure." FALSE
300. "Hemocytoblasts" are undifferentiated stem blood cells that give rise to the production of all the different kinds of blood cells in the human body. TRUE
301. The "fossa ovalis" is a thin spot or depression in the interatrial septum of adult humans. TRUE
302. Veins "and arteries" typically have internal valves that prevent blood from reversing its normal direction of flow. FALSE
303. An important function of the spleen in adult humans is to "destroy worn red blood corpuscles". TRUE
304. The carotid body is found in the neck region where the "internal and external jugular veins" diverge. FALSE
305. Whereas the number of red blood cells and platelets in the blood normally remain fairly steady, the numbers of white blood cells may substantially vary in response to immune challenges. TRUE
306. Blood is involved with thermoregulation of the body. TRUE
307. Functions of the lymphatic system include phagocytosis and antibody formation. TRUE
308. Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells that are normally found primarily in within the "spleen." FALSE
309. The fluids traveling through lymphatic vessels are called "tissue fluids." FALSE
310. The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties its lymph directly into the "right subclavian vein". FALSE
311. The pulmonary veins carry "deoxygenated blood to the lungs." FALSE
312. The contraction phase of the ventricles of the heart, during a cardiac cycle, is referred to as "diastole." FALSE
313. The "tricuspid valve" is located at the right atrioventricular opening. TRUE
314. Blood vessels are hollow tubular structures that are internally lined by simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. TRUE
315. The thymus gland reaches its maximum size in childhood and becomes "conspicuously smaller" in adulthood (in humans). TRUE
316. The sinuses of lymph nodes characteristically contain fairly large number of "neutrophils and basophils." FALSE
317. "Tonsils" are examples of lymphoid tissues. TRUE
318. In arteries, the "tunica externa" is composed primarily of elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle. FALSE
319. "Capillaries" are the basic unit of resource exchange between the circulatory vessels and the tissues being serviced. TRUE
320. Chordae tendineae assist the "semilunar valves" in preventing backflow of blood. FALSE
321. Another name for visceral pericardium is "epicardium." TRUE
322. Pulmonary circulation carries blood between "capillaries in the heart and capillaries in the lungs." FALSE
323. The spleen and the tonsils are all considered to be lymphoid tissues. TRUE
324. The ligamentum teres (round ligament) associated with the adult liver is a reminant of the "umbilical artery" of the fetus. FALSE
325. The reddish granules apparent in the vacuoles of eosinophils is due to their "hemoglobin content." FALSE
326. The external iliac arteries extend inferiorly through the inguinal canal into the thigh where they become called the "brachial" arteries. FALSE
327. The muscular layer of the heart is called the "epicardium." FALSE
328. A fetus normally has a single, unpaired, umbilical vein. TRUE
329. "Eosinophils" have the important function of secreting the anticoagulant heparin into the blood as needed. FALSE
330. Human red blood corpuscles "lack a nucleus" when mature. TRUE
331. "Lymphatics" are vessels of the lymphatic system, are similar to veins in structure, and normally have internal back flow valves. TRUE
332. The "bicuspid (mitral)" valve controls the passageway between the left atrium and the left ventricle. TRUE
333. "Lymph nodes" usually directly absorb accumulating tissue fluids from the tissues. FALSE
334. The blood vessels that characteristically have the greatest difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures are the "veins." FALSE
335. The "spleen" is usually considered to be the largest single lymphoid mass in the adult human body. TRUE
336. Bands of smooth muscle cells (located at the beginning of capillaries) are called precapillary sphincters and function to control blood flow through a capillary plexus. TRUE
337. Humans characteristically have three great arteries that branch off of their aortic arch while other mammals like cats generally only have two. TRUE
338. Blood in an umbilical artery travels from the fetus to the placenta. TRUE
339. The lub dub sounds characteristic of a living heart are due to the "actions of the heart valves." TRUE
340. The first artery to branch off of the aortic arch in humans is the "left common carotid artery." FALSE
341. The pericardial sac, of the heart, is also called the parietal pericardium. TRUE
342. The hepatic portal vein carries blood directly from the "appendages and the kidneys " to the liver. FALSE
343. Blood is often classified as a type of "connective tissue." TRUE
344. "Portal veins" are blood vessels that begin as capillaries and end as capillaries. TRUE
345. Lymphocytes are an example of a kind of "granular" leukocyte. FALSE
346. In the lower abdomen, the aorta divides into left and right common iliac arteries. TRUE
347. Neutrophils function as phagocytes. TRUE
348. Veins generally have thinner walls, and "smaller" diameters compared to their adjacent arteries. FALSE
349. The outermost layer of a lymph node is the "fibrous capsule." TRUE
350. The process of blood cell formation is called "hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis." TRUE
351. Portal veins are unique kinds of vessels that characteristically begin as capillaries and end as capillaries or sinusoids. TRUE
352. The walls of "arteries and veins" are typically composed of the following three layers or tunics: Intima, media and externa. TRUE
353. The coronary sinus carries "oxygenated" blood to the right atrium of the heart. FALSE
354. Pulmonary veins carry “oxygenated” blood. TRUE
355. Capillaries are the smallest of blood vessels and have inside walls composed mainly of endothelial cells. TRUE
356. Another name for epicardium is “parietal pericardium.” FALSE
357. The “pericardial cavity” is a potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of pericardia. TRUE
358. All of the blood in the chambers of the “right side” of the heart is oxygenated. FALSE
359. The arteries of the coronary circuit originate from the base of the “ascending aorta.” TRUE
360. The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart and is composed of “smooth” muscle tissue. FALSE
361. The three main vessels entering the right atrium of the heart are the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and the “coronary sinus.” TRUE
362. Pulmonary veins enter the “right ventricle” on the posterior side of the heart. FALSE
363. The “bicuspid (mitral valve)” closes the passageway between the left atrium and the left ventricle. TRUE
364. During systole, the cuspid valves do not evert into the atria because of the action of the “trabeculae carnae.” FALSE
365. The atriovenricular valves are examples of “semilunar valves.” FALSE
366. In humans, the coronary arteries originate from the base of the ascending aorta just superior to the “mitral valves.” FALSE
367. The “fossa ovalis”, in adults, is a thin place in the interatrial wall that is the remnant of an interatrial blood passageway before birth. TRUE
368. The great arteries that originate directly from the aortic arch (in humans) are the “brachiocephalic, right common carotid, and left sublcavian”. FALSE
369. The great arteries that originate directly from the aortic arch in cats are the “brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian”. FALSE
370. The two large arteries that supply the brain with fresh blood are the “internal carotid and jugular.” FALSE
371. The “axillary artery” is a continuation of the subclavian artery outside of the thoracic cavity. TRUE
372. The carotid body, has sensory receptors that detect changes in carbon dioxide levels within the blood, and is located at the junctions of the “external and internal jugular veins.” FALSE
373. The muscles of the face are serviced by the “internal carotid artery.” FALSE
374. The descending aorta consists of thoracic “and abdominal parts.” TRUE
375. Three large, single, median, visceral arteries originating from the abdominal aorta are the “celiac, superior, and inferior mesenteric.” TRUE
376. The “ligamentum arteriosum,” in adults, connects (binds) the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch. TRUE
377. The renal, adrenolumbar, and genital arteries are “all paired.” TRUE
378. The external iliac arteries continue through the inguinal ligament, into the thigh, where they become called the “brachial” arteries. FALSE
379. Veins generally have thinner walls, and “smaller diameters,” compared to their adjacent arteries. FALSE
380. The large vessel receiving blood from the small intestine, large intestine, spleen and stomach is called the “superior mesenteric vein.” FALSE
381. A blood vessel that begins as capillaries and ends as capillaries is called an “artery.” FALSE
382. The “external jugular” vein of humans receives blood directly from the brain. FALSE
383. The cistern chili is a conspicuous lymphatic vessel seen in the “thoracic cavity.” FALSE
384. The “liver” removes worn out red blood corpuscles, stores blood, has lymphoid functions, and empties into the hepatic portal system. FALSE
385. The descending aorta passes through the “anterior region” of the diaphragm. FALSE
Created by: ANATOMY328