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HA Ch. 22 (24)

The Respiratory System

the respiratory system provides an area for...between... gas exchange...air and circulating blood
the resp system supplies the...and disposes... body with oxygen...co2
resp system circulates the air between exchange surfaces
resp system protects respiratory surfaces
resp system provides protection against pathogens
resp system helps to regulate blood volume, blood pressure, and body fluid pH
pulmonary ventilation is when air is movedin and out of the lungs
external respiration is...between the... gas exchange...blood in the capillaries and the air at the lung alveoli
transport of respiratory gases;...transported between the...via..using... o2 and co2...lungs and the cells of the body...cardiovascular system...blood as the transport vehicle
internal respiration;...between gases exchanged...systemic blood and the tissue cells...systemic capillaries
both the respiratory and cardiovascular system are irreversibly linked and involved in respiratory functioning
conducting zone goes from the..and contain... nose...terminal bronchioles...fairly rigid conduits that carry air to the sites of gas exchange
conducting zones function to filter, moisten, and warm incoming air
respiratory zone goes from the...and is the actual site of... respiratory bronchioles...alveoli...gas exchange in the lungs
structures of the respiratory zone include the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs consisting of groups of alveoli
the nose is the only externally visible part of the respiratory system
external nose is composed of bones and flexible plates of hyaline cartilage
the nasal cavity is from the the...or.. external nares..internal nares...choanae
the nasal cavity is divided into right and left halves by the nasal septum
anterior portion of the nasal septum is formed of hyaline cartilage
bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the fusion of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the plate of the vomer
posteriorly the nasal cavity is continuous with the nasopharynx through the choanae
the bony boundaries of the nasal cavity are formed by the maxillae, nasal and frontal bones, ethmoid and sphenoid bones, and by the hard and soft palates
nasal vestibule is the entryway of the nose which is protected by hairs that screen out large particles
olfactory mucosa lines area near the roof of the nasal cavity
respiratory mucosa lines the vast majory of the nasal cavity
the respiratory mucosa is comprised of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with scattered goblet cells and an underlying lamina propria
the respiratory mucosa is richly supplied with sensory nerve endings, rich plexuses of capillaries and thin-walled veins in the lamina propria which warm incoming air
sneeze reflex occurs when irritants contact the mucosa
nasal conchae are also called turbinate bones
nasal conchae consist of three mucosa-covered, scroll-like structures projecting medially from each lateral wall of the nasal cavity
3 mucosa covered structures in the nasal conchae superior, middle, inferior conchae
supieror and middle and inferior meatus are...inferior to each...appropriately named according to their narrow groove...concha...location
conchae and meatuses increase air turbulence
conchae and meatuses together with the nasal mucosa... filter, moisten, and warm air during inhalation
conchae and meatuses reclaim the heat and moisture during exhalation
hard palate forms the...and separates the... bony floor of the nasal cavity formed by the maxillary and palatine bones...oral and nasal cavities
soft palate forms the...markig the boundary between the... fleshy floor of the nasal cavity...superior nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx
the paranasal sinuses are rings of...surrounding the... air-filled cavities...nasal cavity
the paranasal sinuses are located in the...and are named according to their frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones...location
paranasal sinuses act as resonance chambers in speech
paranasal sinuses are lined by the same nasal mucosa and perform the same air-processing functions
the pharynx is a..shaped passageway that connects the... funnel...nasal cavity and the mouth superiorly to the larynx and inferiorly to the esophagus
the pharynx serves as common passageway for both food and air
the pharynx consits of skeletal muscle throughout its length but the nature of the mucosa lining it varies
the pharynx, within the mucosa are...which... tonsils...destroy pathogens
3 pharyngeal regions (superior to inferior) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
nasopharynx has...lining ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelial
nasopharynx is located directly posterior to the nasal cavity's choanae
the nasopharynx is an...only air passageway
oropharynx has a...lining due to... thick, protective stratified squamous epithelial..increased friction and chemical trauma from food and air
oropharynx is located posterior to the oral cavity
oropharynx has fauces which are arch-like entranceway directly behind the mouth
oropharynx is a passageway for food and air
laryngopharynx has a ... lining stratified squamous epithelial
laryngopharynx is located directly posterior to the epiglottis and larynx and is continuous with both the esophagus and the larynx
laryngopharynx is a common passageway for food and air
the larynx is the voice box
the larynx is superiorly attached to the...and opens into the...; inferiorly the larynx is... hyoid bone...laryngopharynx...continuous with the trachea
larynx does...production voice
the larynx provides an open airway
the larynx acts as a switching mechanism to route air and food into proper channels
the larynx has...connected by... nine laryngeal cartilages...membranes and ligaments
all of the structures of the larynx are composed of...except the... hyaline cartilage...epiglottis
the thyroid cartilage is shaped like an... upright open book or a shield
the thyroid cart. is the...cartilage largest laryngeal
the thyroid cart forms most of the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx
in males, the laryngeal prominence is a... thick ridge on the anterior surface of the thryoid cartilage (adam's apple)
cricoid cart is...shaped cartilage that forms a signet-ring...complete ring of cartilage with greatly expanded posterior portions
the cricoid cart is located inferior to the thyroid cart. and perched ontop of the trachea
the cricoid cart, along with the thyroid cart... protects the glottis and the entrance to the trachea
the cricoid and thyroid cartilage have broad surfaces that provide sites for the attachment of important laryngeal muscles and ligaments
arytenoid cartilages (2) are...shaped cartilages that ...and articulate with the... ladle...anchor the vocal cords...supierior border of the enlarged portion of the cricoid cart.
corniculate cartilages (2) are...shaped cartilages that articulate with the...with which they play a role in the... horn...arytenoid cartilages...opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound
cuneiform cartilages (2) are...shaped cartilages that lie within the...that extends between the... wedge...aryepiglottic fold...lateral aspect of each arytenoids cartilage and epiglottis
epiglottis is..shaped laryngeal cartilage shoehorn
epiglottis is comprised of elastic cartilage
epiglottis is almost entirely covered by mucosa
the epiglottis projects superior to the glottis
the glottis is the narrow opening through which inspired, or inhaled, air leaves the pharynx to get the larynx
the epiglottis tips inferiorly to cover and seal the laryngeal inlet during swallowing
the epiglottis functions in which substances are... cough reflex...expelled
the trachea descends from the...through the..and into the.. larynx...neck...mediastinum
the trachea ends by branching into the... two main bronchi, the right main bronchus, and the left main bronchus in the mid-thorax
the tracheal wall contains...of...joined to... 16-20 c shaped rings...hyaline another by intervening membranes of fibroelastic CT called annular ligaments
the tracheal cartilages stiffen the...and protect the... tracheal walls...airway
the tracheal wall provides flexibility but also prevents trachea from collapsing or overexpanding as pressures change in the respiratory system
the tracheal wall keeps the airway open despite pressure changes during breathing
the tracheal wall layers include the mucous membrane, submucosa, adventitia
mucous membrane has ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and the lamina propria
the submucosa is another layer of ct containing seromucous glands
adventitia is...containg the... CT...tracheal cartilage
trachealis muscle has...along with.. smooth muscle fibers...soft CT in open posterior region
the trachealis muscle functions in decreasing the diameter of the trachea
carina is the point where.. ridge...internal aspect of the last tracheal cartilage...trachea branches into main bronchi
the often initiated in the carina cough reflex
the bronchi and their subdivisions form the bronchial tree
the bronchial tree is a system of respiratory passageways that branch extensively within the lungs
the r and l main bronchi are the largest conduits in the bronchial tree
the r and l main bronchi supply the...and divide into... lungs ...lobar bronchi
the lobar bronchi supply the..and divide into... lungs...segmental bronchi
the segmental bronchi supply the...and through many orders of branching divide into... bronchopulmonary segments...bronchioles/terminal bronchioles
the bronchioles/terminal bronchioles lead into the respiratory zone
the respiratory zone consists of structures in decreasing size... respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
tissue composition of the wall of each main bronchus mimics that of the...changes occur as the.. trachea...conducting tubes decrease in diamete
cartilage changes cartilage ringes are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage as the main bronchi enter the lungs
cartilage is absent in... bronchioles but elastin is present
epithelium changes mucosal epithelial lining things as it changes from ciliated pseudostratified columnar to simple columnar to simple cuoidal in the smallest bronchioles, where cilia or mucus producing cells are absent
smooth muscle becomes important: complete layer of...appears in walls of... smooth muscle first...large bronchi and is present throughout the smaller bronchi and bronchioles
alveoli are microscopic air exchange chambers of the lungs
alveoli are surrounded by a...and... delicate network of pulmonary capillaries...fine elastic fibers
type I cells: single layer of...which lines the walls of...and are surrounded by... squamous epithelial cells...alveoli...delicate basal lamina
type II cells:...cells which secrete...and contains... cuboidal epithelial...a fluid that coats the internal alveolar surfaces...surfactant
surfactant is...-like and prevents... detergent...alveolar walls from sticking together during exhalation
alveolar macrophages or...cells exist in the...and remove the... dust...air space of alveoli...the tiniest inhaled particles that are not trapped by the nasal mucosa
the pleurae are...sacs around each...whose walls consist of... double-layerd flattened...lung...serous membranes
parietal pleura is the...layer that covers... outer...internal surface of thoracic wall, superior surface of diaphragm, and lateral surfaces of mediastinum
visceral pleura is the...layer that covers... inner...external surface of the lung
pleural cavity is...filled with...which decreases... potential space between the parietal and visceral pleura...pleural fluid...friction between the lungs and the thoracic wall during breathing
the r and l lungs and their pleural sacs are..and each lung is roughly... paired...cone shaped
the lungs consist mainly of...and the balance of its tissue, called...which is a... air tubes and spaces...stroma...framework of CT containing many elastic fibers
the lungs are... light, soft, spongy, elastic organs
the anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces of the lung contact the ribs and form a continuously curving costal surface
apex of the lungs is rounded and the superior tip
base of the lungs is concave inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm
hilus is the...on the..through which... indentation...medial surface of each lung...blood vessels, bronchi, lymph vessels and nerves enter and exit the lung
left lung is somewhat smaller
the left lung contains the cardiac notch
the left lung is divided the... 2 lobes (upper and lower)...oblique fissure
right lung is divided the... 3 lobes (upper, middle, and lower)...oblique fissure and the horizontal fissure
each lung lobe is further subdivided into 10 bronchopulmonary segments which are seperated by thin partitions of dense CT
the segments limit the spread of some diseases within the lung
pulmonary arteries deliver... o2 poor blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation
pulmonary capillary network surrounds the alveoli
pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from alveoli of the lungs to the heart
sympathetic nerve fibers dilate the air tubes
parasympathetic nerve fibers constrict air tubes
visceral sensory fibers and the other nerve fibers enter each...through the... lung...pulmonary plexus on the root of the lung
the mechanism of breathing, or...consist of... pulmonary ventilation...2 phases,(inspiration and expiration)
inspiration is the period when..causing...within the... air flows into the lungs...increased volume and decreased pressure...thoracic cavity via the inspiratory muscles, diaphragm, and intercostals
action of the diaphragm contraction causes it to move inferiorly and to flatten, which results in increased vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity
the cause the ribs to...which results in... contract...raise...increased right to left dimension of the thoracic cavity
expiration is the period when gases exit the lungs
expiration is mainly which the... passive process..inspiratory muscles relax
expiration causes decreased volumes of the thorax and lungs simultaneously
main respiratory center is located in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata (RVLM)
the rostal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is considered as.. pacemaker whoe neurons generate the basic ventilatory rhythm and rate
basic pattern can be modified by higher centers of the central nervous system
the limbic system and the hypothalamus confer emotional influence
the cerebral cortex mediates conscious control
the basic pattern is also modified by chemoreceptors, which sense the chemistry of blood
Created by: handrzej



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