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H.A. Ch. 21 (23)

The Lymphoid (lymphatic and immune) system

QuestionAnswer
the lymphoid system plays a central role in the body's defense against viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms
the lymphatic system consists of lymphatic circulatory vessels that carry lymph
the immune system contains the...which are involved in the body's... lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue, and lymphoid organs...defense against disease
lymphoid structures can be classified as primary (containing stem cells) or secondary (containing immature or activated lymphocytes)
lypmh is...which is similar to... excess tissue fluid..plasma but contains a lower concentration of proteins
lymphatics or...pick up...and return it to... lymphatic vessels...lymph...the great veins at the root of the neck
lymphatics...the lymphoid... interconnect...organs and tissues
lymphatics produce... maintain and distribute lymphocytes
lymphocytes are cells that attack invading organisms, abnormal cells, and foreign proteins
lymphatic vessels help maintain blood volume and eliminate local variations in the composition of the interstitial fluid
lymphatic vessels also retrieve blood proteins that leak from capillaries and return these proteins to the bloodstream
the vessels of the lymphatic system, from smallest to largest, are... lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic collecting vessels (with lymph nodes), lymph trunks, and lymph ducts
lymphatic capillaries are also called terminal lymphatics
lymphatic caps weave through the loose CT of the body
these(lymphatic caps)...are highly...to entering.. closed-end tubes...permeable...tissue fluid and proteins
lymphatic caps are highly permeable to entering tissues and proteins because their.. endothelial cells are loosely joined and overlap to act as a one-way valve, preventing fluid from returning to their intercellular spaces
...and...enter the permeable lymphatic caps and spread... disease-causing microorganisms...cancer cells...widely through the lymph vessels
lymphatic caps called..absorbe lacteals...digested fat from the small intestine
superficial and deep lymphatic collecting vessels run alongside arteries and veins
the difference in superficial and deep collecting vessels is that they have thinner walls and many more valves than do veins
as a result of the closely spaced valves within these collecting vessels, they resemble a string of beads
lymph flows...though lymphatic vessels and empty into the.. very slowly...thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct
what maintain flow in the lymphatic collecting vessels normal body movements, contractions of skeletal muscles, arterial pulsations, and contraction of smooth muscle in the wall of the lymphatic vessel
lymphatic..prevent.. valves..backflow
lymph nodes are clustered along the...bean shaped lymph nodes remove lymphatic collecting vessels...infectious agents and cancer cells form the lymph nodes
lymph enters the node via...and exits via... afferrent lymphatic vessels...efferent vessels at the hilum
in between, the lymph...where macrophages remove... percolates through lymph sinuses...lymph-borne pathogens
the lymph trunks (...) each draing a... (lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, and jugular)...large body region
all except the...are paired intestinal trunk
the right lymphatic duct, and/or the nearby trunks, drains... lymph from the superior right quarter of the body
the thoracic duct, and/or the nearby trunks, drains lymph from the rest of the body
the thoracic and right lymphatic ducts empty into the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins
the thoracic duct starts at the...and ascends along the... cisterna chyli at L1-L2...thoracic vertebral bodies
lymphoid organs and lymphoid tissues house... millions of lymphocytes which are important cells of the immune system that recognize specific antigens
lymphocytes have 3 types.. b cells, t cells, and NK cells
b and t lymphocytes fight infectious microorganisms in the loose and lymphoid CT of the body
b cells are...derived and produce bone marrow...antibody-secreting plasma cells
b cells and...are best at... antibodies...destroying bacteria and bacterial products
b cells can differentiate into plasmocytes which produce and secrete antibodies that react with specific chemical targets called antigens
immunoglobulins are antibodies in body fluids
b cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
memory b cells are activated if the antigen appears again at a later date
t cells or...are..dependent and directly kill... cytotoxic cells...thymus...antigen-bearing cells which are foreign cells or body cells that have been infected by viruses
t cells are best at destroying eukaryotic cells that express surface antigens such as virus-infected cells and grafted and tumor cells
t cells provide cell-mediated immunity
regulatory t cells(...) regulate and coordinate the.. (helper and suppressor)...immune response
memory t cells are activated if the antigen appears again at a later date
natural killer cells or...do not... large granular lymphocytes...recognize specific antigens but rapidly attack and kill foreign cells, tumor cells, and virus-infected cells
nk cells provide immunological surveillance
mature lymphocytes patrol CTs throughout the body by passing in and out of the circulatory vessels (recirculation)
lymphocytes have a long.. life span
lymphocytes arise from stem cells in the bone marrow
t cells develop immunocompetence in the thymus
b cells develop immunocompetence in the bone marrow
immunocompetence is the ability to recognize antigens
millions of different lymphocytes, which retain the ability to...,allow the body to... divide...be prepared for any antigen
immunocompetence lymphocytes then circulate to the loose and lymphoid CTs, where antigen binding leads to lymphocyte activation
goal of immune response destruction or inactivation of pathogens, abnormal cells, and foreign molecules such as toxins
the antigen challenge involves an interaction among lymphocytes being activated, an antigen presenting cell and a helper t lymphocyte
events in the antigen challenge; antigen-presenting cells result when...which then.. antigens are engulfed by macrophages...present the antigens to T cells so they can begin differentiating
a newly activated t cell or b cell divides... quickly to produce many short-lived effector lymphocytes and some long-lived memory lymphocytes
recirculating memory lymphocytes provide long term immunity
lymphopoiesis involves the bone marrow, thymus, and peripheral lymphoid tissues
lymphoid tissue is an often-infected reticular CT in which many b and t lymphocytes gather to fight pathogens or become activated
lymphoid tissue is located in the mucous membranes -as MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) and in the lymphoid organs (except the thymus)
lymphyoid tissue contains...in which... lymphoid follicles with germinal centers ...lymphocytes are densely packed in an area of loose CT
each follicle contains thousands of b lymphocytes all derived from one activated b cell
lymphoid organs includes the thymus, lymph node, spleen, tonsils, aggregated lymph nodes
the thymus is located in the...and is a... superoanterior thorax and neck...primary lymphoid organ that is most active during youth
the thymus'...which are secreted by... thymic hormones...epithelial (reticular) cells, signal the contained t lymphocytes to differentiate and gain immunocompetence
blood-thymus barrier does not allow free exchange between the interstitial fluid and the circulation; thus protecting the t cells from being prematurely activated
the thumus has...each with an...packed with... lobules...outer cortex...maturing t cells and inner medulla containing fewer t cells and degenerative thymic corpuscles
the thymus undergoes involution which is a decrease in size after puberty
the thymus neither directly fights antigens nor contains true lympoid tissue
within a lymph node encapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue lie between the sinuses
deep cortex of the lymph node is dominated by t cells
outer cortex and medulla of lymph node contain b cells arranged into medullary cords
lymph glands are the largest lymph nodes, found where peripheral lymphatics connect with the trunk
locales are cervical, axillary, popliteal, inguinal, thoracic abdominal, intestinal and mesenterial lymph nodes that serve to protect vulnerable areas of the body
this lymphoid tissue receives some of the antigens that pass through the node, leading to lymphocytes activation and memory-lymphocytes production
the spleen has two main functions
the adult spleen contains the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body
diaphragmatic surface of the spleen lies agaisnt the diaphragm
visceral surface of the spleen lies agaisnt the stomach and kidney, and contains a groove called the hilum
the cellular components of the spleen form the pulp of the spleen
the spleen removes antigens from the bloody which is performed by the white pulp
white pulp of the spleen consists of sleeves of lymphoid tissue, each surrounding a central artery
white pulp resembles lymphoid nodules
white pulp is surrounded by a high concentrationh of macrophages
the spleen destroys worn out red blood cells which is performed by the red pulp
red pulp of the spleen consists of venous sinuses and strips of blood filled reticular CT called splenic cords whose macrophages remove worn out blood cells
red pulp contains large number of RBCs with lymphocytes scattered throughout
the tonsils in the...aggregated lymphoid nodules in the...and the...are parts of... pharynx...small intesting...wall of appendix...MALT in which the lymphoid tissue contains an exceptionally high concentration of lymphocytes and follicles
Created by: handrzej