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Circulatory; SC Bio5

Function of Blood Distribution, regulates temperature, pH levels and fluid volume, protection
Characteristics of Blood Blood is fluid tissue, has a metallic taste because of the iron, viscous, males average more blood than females (5-6L vs 4-5L)
Composition of Blood Plasma and formed elements
formed elements in the blood Erythrocytes (RBC), Leukocytes (WBC) and platelets
Hematocrit percent of RBC in total blood volume. males-47%, females-42%
Centrifuge separates Red blood cells and plasma, <1% of whole blood is platelets and leukocytes (WBC)
Blood Plasma 90% water, contains > 100 different dissolved solutes; Plasma bodies, organic nutrients, electrolytes and respiratory gases.
How does O2 and CO2 travel? By attaching to RBC or by dissolving in plasma
formed elements in the blood Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. (most survive in the bloodstream for only a few days)
Hematopoeisis RBC can't since replicate since they have no nucleus. They are produced by cell division in red bone marrow. (1oz of new blood a day)
Function of RBC-erythrocytes main function is transportation of respiratory gases, efficient carrier or O2 since it doesn't have any organelles that use it up. contains 97% hemoglobin, whose structure contains iron and O2 binds to iron.
Hemoglobin Heme-pigmented part, contains iron (4 heme in 1 hemoglobin), globin- protein part. For every 1 heme there will be 1 O2 molecule, so 1 hemoglobin=4 O2 molecules
Erythropoietin (hormone) increases formation of new red blood (controls erythropoiesis), released by kidney
Erythropoiesis stem cell> committed cell> hemoglobin forms>reticulocyte leaves bone marrow to mature in blood stream, maturing happens in the blood stream
Destruction of RBC live 120 days, macrophages in spleen, liver and bone marrow destroy RBC, globin breaks it does into amino acids and is reused, heme breaks down bilirubin(yellow) into stercobilin(brown)
Erythrocyte Disorder: anemia blood O2 cannot support normal metabolism. Caused by lowered RBCs, lower Hemoglobin per RBC ration or abnormal hemoglobin (sickle cell)
Leukocytes (WBCs) Only formed element that is a complete cell, make up <1% of blood volume, and unlike RBC who only stay in blood stream, WBC's leave the bloodstream and can travel into tissue. Two types granulocytes and agranulocytes
Granulocytes contain granules which contain enzymes, there are neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils.
Neutrophils Multi-lobed nucleus, two types of granules and stains, both a acidic and basic, protect against bacteria and some fungi
Eosinophils Bi-lobed nucleus, acid stain, counterattack agains parasistic worms and lessen the severity of allergies
Basophils basic stain, release histamine-causes vasodilation (vessel dilation) and attract WBC to inflamed site
Agranulocytes no ganules; lymphocytes and monocytes
Lymphocytes T lymphocytes destroy infected cells and B lymphocytes produce antibodies
Monocytes becomes macrophage, activates B and T lymphocytes
Order of most abundant to least abundant of leukocytes Neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, Eosinophil and basophil
Platelets (Thrombocytes) cell fragments, plugs damages vessels and initiates blood clotting
Human blood groups A, B, AB (universal recipient), O (universal donor). distinguished by antigens and antibodies
antigens markers on the surface of a cell (receptors) Ex. Type A cell contains a antigen A
antibodies proteins that travel in the plasma that mark foreign blood cells for destruction. Type A cell contains anti-B antibodies
type AB Surface antigens A and B, and neither anti-A nor anti- B antibodies
type O No antigens, has anti-A and anti-B antibodies
RH blood groups Presence of Rh antigen on RBC's is indicated as RH+, Rh antibodies form in Rh- individuals only after exposure. Ex. Type A+ contains anti-b antigens and Rh antigens
Created by: holt.gracea



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