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Endocrine, SC Bio 5

Endocrine system

Endocrine system function Regulates the metabolic functions of cells
Differences between endocrine system and nervous system Endocrine use hormones, the circulatory system for transport, response has a lag period and it has a prolonged effect. The neversou system used electrical signals, nerves for transport, fast response and shorter effect
Hormone functions controls metabolism, stimulates or inhibits growth, control what goes in and out of cell, and cell division
Two types of hormones Steroid; lipid soluble; able to enter cell. and amino acid bases; binds to receptor on plasma membrane
3 Types of hormone release humoral, neural and hormonal
Pituitary Gland sits in the sella turcia. releases had two lobes; anterior and posterior
Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) receives, stores and releases neurohormones from the hypothalamus (does not produce its own hormones)
Neurohormones produces in hypothalamus and stored in posterior lobe -Antidiuretic Hormone;reduces urine production, water is reabsorbed by kidneys, blood volume increases, higher BP, alcohol inhibits ADH secretion. 2) Oxytocin; contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus & ducts of the mammary glands, positive feedback
Andenohypopysis (anterior lobe) synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones after stimulation from hypothalamus hormones (ex of hormone stimulation)
humoral stimuli something in fluid or blood stimulates hormone production
neural stimuli direct enervation from nerves, stimulation from nerve fibers
hormonal stimuli "chain reaction", one hormone stimulates production of other hormones from different glands
7 hormones of the anterior lobe Prolactin, Thyroid Stimulating hormone(TSH), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Melanocyte stimulating (MSH), Follicle stimulating (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Prolactin in females stimulates milk production
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone stimulates thyroid to produce and secret thyroxin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocoticoids
Melanocyte stimulating hormone increases rate of melanin production- only in fetus, found children and pregnancy
follcle stimulating hormone In females, stimulates development of follicles in the ovary and production of estrogen. In males it stimulates sperm production
Luteinizing hormone In females, stimulates ovulation, etc. In males stimulates production of testosterone
Pineal Gland Secretes melatonin, sets day/night cycles of body
Thymus secretes Thymosin (needed for development of T lymphocytes. It shrinks as we get older, grows until puberty
Thyroid Gland hormones Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyroinine (T3), and Calcitonin. Colloid produces thyroglobulin, which combines with iodine to be a precursor of thyroid hormone
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyroinine (T3) Controls basal metabolic rate, stimulates growth and development, produced in thyroid follicle cells (colloid?)
Calcitonin Stimulates storage of calcium into bone (less calcium in bloodstream), produced by parafollicular cells
goiter caused by lack of iodine, caused colloids to swell, thus thyroid gland grows
Parathyroid hormone increases calcium in the blood, converting fit D to active from which allows calcium absorption in blood and causes kidney to reabsorb calcium, releases back into the body
Adrenal glands composed of adrenal cortex-glandular; adrenal medulla- neural
Adrenal Cortex releases Aldosterone: acts on kidneys to retain Na+, water follows, increase blood volume, increases in BP. Cortisol: makes sugar available for cellular metabolism during stress, decreases immune system and inflammation.; Sex hormones
Andrenal Medulla releases Epinephrine and Norepinephrine, increases heart rate, cardiac output, respiratory rate and basal metabolic rate
Pancreas Pancreatic acini cells are exocrine. Pancreatic islets are endocrine.
Pancreatic Islets produce Glucagon: increases sugar levels in blood stream. Insulin: decreases sugar levels in blood stream
gonads Ovaries: produce estrogen's and progesterone; secondary sex charact., egg production, breast develop. and menstrual cycle. Testes produce testosterone: sec sex charac. and sperm production
Created by: holt.gracea



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