Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Intro to endocrine

Clinical Medicine II

Function of the endocrine system sex differential, reproduction, growth and development, metabolic fxns, emergency responses
How does the endocrine system tight control of certain electrolytes, narrow limits, works w/ nervous sys, stress to response, hierarchy (chart)
What are catacholimines epi and norepi
Fxn of catacholamines flight or fight, ↑ HR, vasoconstriction, ↑ blood sugar ↑ATP
Fxn of corticoids BP control
What are characteristics of chemical Messengers secreted by endocrine glands, transported thru blood, target tissues, regulatory effects
Paracrine glands secretions affects neighboring cells
Exocrine externally excreted
What is the thyroid cascade TRH→TSH→TH
Functions of hormones alter rate of synthesis, alter biological acivity: EPI and Glucagon, Alter cell permeability of membranes
What is an enzyme cascade important has exponentially exaggerated effects, w/o enzyme pathways very slow!
Fxns of insulin alter permeability of cell membranes, ion flux, transport processes, membrane potential
Three main types of hormones peptide/protein, amines, steroids
What are some other hormone-like proteins vitamin A & D, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, prostaglandins, growth factors, interferons, pheromones, chemotactic agents
Characteristics of peptide hormones proteins, glycoproteins, oligopeptides, polypeptides, fast-acting, short T1/2
How does synthesis occur for peptide hormones we make it once cells are stimulated
What does C-peptide do measure of insulin production
Will type 1 and 2 diabetes pt’s have a high c-peptide type 1: low, type 2: high
Pancreas hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
Alimentary hormones gastrin, secretin, ghrelin, CCK
Pit hormones oxytocin, ADH, ACTH, TSH, GH, prolactin, LH, FSH
What is an amine hormone tyrosine derived
5 amine hormones T4, T3, Epi, norepi, dopamine
What is T4, and T3 T4: thyroxine, T3: Triodothyronine
Is T3, T4 fast or slow hormones SLOW-acting, acting at the nuclear level, T4 T1/2: 7 days T3: 1 day
When would we use dopamine acute HOTN, and parkinson’s
Fxn of dopamine
Fight/ Flight response online
What are catecholamines like fast acting w/ short T1/2, emergent responses,
Characteristics of amine hormones derivatives ofsingle aa, fast and slow acting
Types of steroid hormones glucocorticoids: cortisol, mineralcorticoids: aldosterone, Estrogens, progestins, androgens, 1,25 dihydroxy-vit D3
Characteristics of steroid hormones steroid/cholesterol derivatives, nuclear response, lipophilic (need protein carriers), slow-acting→steady state
What are water-soluble hormones peptides, proteins, amino acids (unbound)
Lipid-soluble hormones steroids, carrier, free hormones
Receptor location and fxn for peptide hormones PH: proteins, peptides, and amine hormones, bind to receptor w/ lock and key mechanism on cell surface
Receptor location and fxn for steroid homrones both steroid, T3 and T4 act on cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors, can concentrate in the tissues or cells
How do water-soluble hormones work bind to cell surface, lock-key, receptor on cell transports hormone’s message into cell
Do all cells work all over the body some like insulin, others no like TSH
What are the 4 types of surface receptors G-protines, receptor tyrosine kinase, cytokine, receptors, serine kinase receptors (Don’t NTK)
How do lipid soluble hormones work bind to lipid soluble receptors in cells, transported into cell and nucleus which stimulates transcription, allow hormone to concentrate in specific tissue or cells
Fxns of insulin promotes fat synthesis, inhibits breakdown of fat, helps glucose into the cells
How and why are receptors down-regulated d/t too much hormone around, cell engulf receptors into cell→↓ cell surface receptors
When does this commonly occur type 2 DM and insulin resistance d/t ↓ # receptors
Why do we want to have a steady state glucose in DM to ↓ a floods of insulin and fluctuation
MOA of steroid hormones hormone transported into nucleus (no surface receptor), initiates transcription of enzyme or protein causing cellular effects
What is the fxn of the 2nd messenger in the cell phosphorylation of proteins (some makes proteins active, some inactive)
How are hormone secretion regulated response to internal and external stimuli of the CNS, mediated by hypo-pit axis, controlled by –FB mechanisms
What is negative feedback release hormone, substance released from target tissues, exerts bio effect, product of this turns off the synthesis of hormone up stream
-FB for Target Tissue regulation substance released from target tissue regulates hormone eg: glucagon stimulates gluconeagensis at liver, liver releases glucose, which turns off glucagon
What is + FB release of hormone promotes further hormone stimulation: oxytocin
3 patterns and examples of hormone secretion continuous: T4, Intermittent: Circadian-Gonadotropins and cortisol, cyclic- estrogen, progesterone, LH, FSH, Fluctuating: in response to ext stimuli-insulin, glucagon, aldosterone, ADH, PTH
What is released from hypothalamus for thyroid TRH, acts on ant pit to release TSH, which goes to thyroid hormone in thyroid gland
What happens if we don’t have idodine in our body can’t make thyroid hormone, TSH is high d/t –FB
What is a target tissue regulation of – FB glucagon stimulates gluconeagenis at liver, liver releases glucose, which turns off glucagon
What is –FB hormone product regulation ex: low Ca++→↑PTH→↑ ca++ absorbtion at GI and bone reabsorption→↑SCa++→↓PTH
Major functions of glands in the body know em
Functions of the pancreas alpha: secrete glucagon, beta cells: insulin, D cells: somatostatin
d/o of pancreas DM or pancreatic cell tumors
what pancreas dz’s can cause dm severe pancreatitis, and cystic fibrosis of the pancreas
Loss of libido, ED, amenorrhea, ↓ testosterone can result from Tumor in ant pit causing ↓ LH and FSH
What causes marked wasting of the body panhypopituitarinsm
What causes growth retardation, hypoglycemia, anemia Autoimmune against TSH, post pit tumor
What causes ↑ sympth stimulation, goiter, ↑ metabolic rate, heat intolerance ↑TSH production
causes of endocrine dysfunction with hyperfunction neoplasms, autoimmune, itrogenic, infectious/inflammatory, activating receptors mutations
causes of resistance receptor mutations, signaling pathway mutations, post-receptor defects (type 2 DM)
causes of hypofxn autoimmune, iatrogenic (thyroid), infx/inflame, hormone mutations (GH), enzyme defects, nut. Def, hemorrhage of glands,
Common symptoms of endocrine d/os body size/shape, metabolic effects: fatigue, weakness, local effects, reproduction/sexual, skin
How do we test for endocrine fxn Hormone assays: ELISA or RIA (must remember patterns of secretion, Cyclic, Circadian
Whathormones usually remain at steady state T4, T3
When would we use 24hr urine sample for hormone tests cortisol or catecholamines
Example for testing hypofxn challenge oral glucose tolerance test
Example for testing hyperfxn dexamethasone in Cushing’s syndrome dx: SHOULD turn off ACTH by –FB and ↓ cortisol, if no change in production: cushing’s
What do we do if we suspect adrenal insuff cortisol level, stimulation test, recheck 30-60min later
Tx for endocrine dysfx hormone replacement, suppression vs. surgery, sxs control
What does the pineal gland secrete melatonin
Hormones of the adrenal medulla epi and norepi
Hormones of the adrenal cortex mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids
Ant pit hormones GH, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
Post pit hormones Oxytocin, ADH
Pancreas hormones a: glucagon b: insulin c: somatostatin
Thyroid gland hormone T3, T4, calcitonin (↓ serum Ca++)
Created by: becker15
Popular Clinical Skills sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards