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Phlebotomy Tech

Certified Phlebotmy Tech-NHA study guide

The proper way to dispose of a needle is: Put it into sharps container,without recapping it,immediately after withdrawing it.
The "Good Samaritan Law" encourages healthcare professionals to: Provide medical care within the scope of thier training at the scene of an accident without fear of being sued for negligence.
If a patient refuses a venipuncture procedure, the phlebotomist should: Immediately report the refusal and actions taken to the nurse.
Microorganisms that cause disease are: Pathogenic
This vein in the arm is most subjected to venipunture. Median cubital vein
Post prandial After a meal
Tourniquets may be left on the patient for: 1 minute
Ths complication results from repeated venipuncture of the same vein: Phlebitis
The components that make up the chain of infection are: Source, suscepticle host, mode of transmission
A hematoma can be prevented if: Pressure is placed on the venipuncture site until the bleeding stops.
Arterial blood gases need what kind of special handling? Speciman must be chilled after collection.
The recommended depth for an infant microcapillary collection should not exceed: 2.0 mm
Common symptons of shock are: Pale,cold,clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, expressionless face/staring eyes.
Bacteria, viruses, fungus or parasites belong to which type of hazard? Biologic
What are some examples of PPE (Personal Protection Equipment)? Goggles, gloves, face shield, mask, gown...
Isolation is condensed into whitch three categories? Airborne, droplet and contact.
What is considered a preanalytical error? Inadequate fast
Latex sensitivity is consideredwhat type of hazard? Allergic reaction
Delivers oxygen,nutrients,hormones and enzymes to the cells and to transport celluar waste such as acarbon dioxide and urea to the organs where they can expelled from the body Circulatory system
This carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Pulmonary circulation.
This carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle throughout the body. Systematic circulation.
This is an atrioventricular valve, being situated between the right atrium and right ventricle. The tricuspid valve
A semi lumar valve situated between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The pulmonic valve
The mitrial valve is also known as: The bicuspid valve.
The inner layer lining of the heart is: Endocardium
The muscular middle layer of the heart (This is the contractile element of the heart) is: Myocardium
The fibrous outer layer of the heart (The coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart are found in this layer) is: Epicardium
Aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, superior and inferior vena cavae... Blood vessels
The blood vessels (except for the cappillaries) are composedof these three layers: Tunica adventitia,tunica media,tunica intima.
The outer connective tissue layer of the blood vessel: Tunica adventitia
The middle smooth muscle layer of the blood vessel is: Tunica media
The inner layer of the blood vessel is: Tunica intima
Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the various parts of the body The aorta,arteries and arterioles
The venules, veins and the superior and inferior vena cavae: Carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
The capillaries are composed of: Endothlial cells
Capillary blood is a mixture of: Arterial and venous blood
The average adult has how many liters of blood? 5-6
The liquid portion of blood is called: Plasma
The cellular portion of blood is called: Formed elements
Contains proteins, amino acids, gases, electrolytes, sugars, hormones, minerals, vitamins and water(92%) Plasma
The thin walls of the capillaries allow rapid exchange of: Oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products between the blood and tissue cells.
Plasma comprimises what percentage of the circulating blood? 55%
The formed elements comprimise what percentage of the irculating blood? 45%
The formed elements of blood contain: Erythocytes(99%),leukocytes and thrombocytes
The erythocytes contain an oxygen carrying protein called: Hemoglobin
An immature erythocyte is called a: Reticulocyte
Reticulocytes mature into erythocytes in how long? 1-2 days
How many RBC's are contained per microliter of blood? 4.2-6.2 million
The normal life span of an RBC is: 120 days
Which type of cell provides the body protection against infection? WBC (White blood cells)
The normal amount of WBC's for an adult is: 5,000-10,000
An increase of WBC's as seen in cases of infection and leukemia is called: Leukocytosis
A decrease in WBC's as seen with viral infection or chemotherapy Leukopenia
How many types of WBC's are in the blood? 5
What WBC is the most numerous and compromise 40%-60% of WBC population? Neutrophils
What WBC is phaocytic and increases in bacterial infection and is often the first on the scene? Neutrophils
What WBC is the second most numerous, compromising 20%-40% of the WBC population? Lymphocytes
What WBC increses in numbers in viral infection and play a role in immunity? Lymphocytes
What WBC is the largest (3%-8% of WBC population)? Monocytes
What WBC reprensent 1%-3% and numbers increase with allergies, skin infections and parassitic infections? Eosinophils
Which WBC represent 0%-1% of the population and carry histamine which is released in allergic reactions? Basophills
All blood cells normally originate from stem cells in the: Bone marrow
These are small irregularly shaped packets of cytoplasm formed in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes and are essential for blood coagulaton: Thrombocytes (platelets)
The average number of platelets per microliter of blood is: 140,000-440,000
Platelets have a life span of how many days? 9-12
This is the process by which blood vessels are repaired after injury: Hemostasis
The four stages of hemostasis are: Vascular phase, Platelet phase, Coagulation phase, Fibrinolysis
During the platlet phase of hemostasis, platelets stick to the site finally forming a temporary platelet plug in a process called: Aggreation
The preferred site for venipunture of the upper extremities is: The anticubital fossa
The three major veins located in the anticubital fossa are: Median cubital vein, cephalic ven, basilic vein
Veins that are hard or cordlike, caused by disease, inflammation, chemotherapy or repeated venipunture are: Sclerosed veins
Winding crooked veins are called: Tortuous veins
Do not draw blood from an arm with what? IV fluids
Do not draw blood from what kind of site? Artificial a-v fistula site
The most common complication of phlebotomy procedure, indicating that blood has accumulated in the tissue surrounding the vein is: Hematoma
This common complication of phlebotomy procedure is caused by the needle going through the vein and/or failure to apply enough pressure on the site after withdrawl Hematoma
This increase in proportion of formed elements to plasma caused by the tourniquet being left on more than two minutes. Hemoconcentration
Inflammation of a vein as a result of repeated venipuncture on that vein Phlebitis
Tiny non raised red spots that appear on the skin from rupturing of the capillaries due to the tourniquet being left on too long or too tight Petechiae
A blood clot due to insufficient pressure applied after the withdrawl of a needle Thrombus
Inlammation of a vein with formation of a clot Thrombophlebitis
Systemic infection associated with the pressure of a pathogenic organism introduced during a venipuncture Septicemia
This is an injury to underlying tissues caused by probing of the needle Trauma
Patient must abstain from eating for at least twelve hours Fasting
Accumulation of fluid in the tissues. Collection from this tissue alters test result Edema
Permanant surgical connection between an artery and a vein and can neverbe used for venipuncture Fistula
-cyte cell
Erythro- Red
-globin Protein
Heme- Blood
Leuko- White
-logy Study of
-lysis Destroy or breakdown
Hist- Tissue
Phleb- Vein
Thrombo- Clot
-otomy Incision/cut
-oma Tumor
Mega- Large
Karyo- Nucleus
Anti- Against
Poly- More than one
Phago- Eat
Pulmon- Lung
-emia Blood condition
-itis Inflammation
-penia Deficiency
-stasis Stopping or control
Angio- Vessel
Bili- Bile
Necro- Death
Derm- Skin
A-/An- Without
Ambi- Both
Cryo- Cold
Brady- Slow
Endo- Inside
Cyan- Blue
Epi- On or over
Iso- Same
Neo- New/begining
Peri- Around or during
Arterio- Artery
Cephal- Head
Cubit- Elbow
Condition in which normal red blood cells are reduced Anemia
Serving to prevent the coagulation of formed clots Anticoagulant
Largest artery in the body Aorta
A minute arterial branch which leads to a capillary Arterioles
A vessel through which blood passes away from the heart to the tisue. The pulmonary is an exception the rule Artery
Large vein on the inner side of the upper arm Basilic vein
Artery which lies beneath the basilic vein in the antecubital fossa Brachial artery
Smallest blood vessel that connects arteries and veins Capillary
Device which spins test tubes at high speeds causing the heavy particles in the liquid to settle to the bottom and the lighter liquid to the top Centrifuge
Large vein on the outermost side of the arm Cephalic vein
The treatment of disease by chemical agents Chemotherapy
Protein substance produced by elements of blood and tissue which form a network as the base of a clot Fibrinogen
Bubbles caused by improper venipuncture Frothing
Volume percentage of erythocytes in whole blood Hematocrit
Destruction of red blood cells with the liberation of hemoglobin which diffuses into the surrounding fluid caused by frothing, not allowing the alcohol to dry on skin, shaking the tube and improper entry into the lumen of the vein Hemolysis
Inflammation of the liver by virus or toxic origin Hepatitis
Abnormally increased amounts of sugar in the blood system Hyperglycemia
Abnormally low blood sugar Hypoglycemia
A disease characterized by excessive production of white blood cells Leukemia
Abnormally high amounts of fat in the blood Lipemia
The major vein of the antecubital fossa most commonly used for veinipuncture Median cubital vein
Veins in the hand Metacarpal veins
Veins found in the feet Metatarsal veins
First six weeks of birth Neonatal
To examine by touch Palpate
The scientific study of the nature of disease Pathology
Blood obtained from the outer surface of the body Peripheral blood
Pretaining to a meal Prandial
Artery found in the wrist Radial artery
Clear watery fluid which seperates from the blood when centrifuged Serum
Fainting Syncope
Formation of a clot within a blood vessel Thrombosis
An injury or wrongful act to one person for which another person who caused the injury is legally responsible under a civil suit Tort
Blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood to the heart,except for the pulmonary which carries oxygenated blood Vein
Blood obtained from a vein Venous blood
The amount of blood returning to the atria of the heart Venous return
A small cavity such as one of the lower chambers of the heart Venticle
Blood containing all components, also referred to as MACRO METHOD TECHNIQUE Whole blood
Skin,white blood cells,antibodies,interferon,lining in the body,body secretions Natrual body defenses
Widespread occurance of an infectious disease among a population Epidemic
An organism that lives within or upon another organism (worms) Parasite
The organism within or upon which a parsite lives Host
A disease producing agent. There are 6: Virus,bacteria,rickettsias,protozoa,parasitic worms, fungi Pathogen
The organism responsible for carrying a communicable disease from one host body to another. They are insects, food, people and animals Vectors
Exists in vast numbers and lives everywhere (water,garbage, air, water, mouth etc...) Bacteria
Smallest parasitic organism, hardest to isolate. Viruses
Transmitted to man by ticks, lice etc... Rickettsias
Single celled parasite found in moist soil and bodies of water such as malaria Protozoa
Survives in moist,warm and dark envirnments such as ringworm and athletes foot Fungi
A preperation of weakened or deadbacteria or virus for inoculation purposes Vaccine
Anticoagulant found in the yellow test tube SPS (Sodium Polyanetholesulfonate
Anticoagulant found in the light blue test tube Buffered sodium citrate
Anticoagulant found in the green test tube Heparin- Sodium/lithium/ammonia
Anticoagulant found in the lavender test tube EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic)
What does the red/grey speckled test tube contain? Clot activators
Whitch test tube is sterile? Yellow top
Whitch section in the clinical lab, are the formed elements of the blood studied? Hematology section
Whitch section of the clinical lab is the most automated section in the laboratory? Chemistry section
What are the three areas that the chemistry section is divided in? Electrophoresis, toxicology, immunochemistry
What does the electrophoresis are of the chemistry section do? Analyzes chemical components of blood such as hemoglobin and serum,urine and cerebrospinal fluid based on the differences in electrical charge.
What does the toxicology are of the chemistry section do? Analyzes plasma levels of drugs and poisons.
What does the immunochemistry are of the chemistry section do? Uses techniques such as radio immunoassay and enzyme immunoassay to detect and measure substances such as hormones,enzymes and drugs.
What section of the lab collects,stores and preapares blood for transfusions? Blood bank section
What section of the lab performs tests to evaluate the patients immune response through the production of antibodies? Serology (immunology) section
What section of the lab is responsible for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in patient samples and for the hospital infection control? Microbiology section
What is the primary test performed in the microbiology section of the lab? Culture and sensitivity (C&S)- used to detect and identify microorganisms and to determine the most effective antibiotic therapy.
What section of the lab performs tests on the urine to detect disorders and infection of the kidney and urinary tract and to detect metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus? Urinalysis section
OSHA stands for: Occupational Safety and Health Administation
OSHA is responsible for? The identification of the various hazards present in the workplace and for the creation of rules and regulations to minimize exposure to such hazards.
What are the types of hazards that you,your patients and fellow staff members may be exposed to in the medical field? Biologic,Sharps,Chemical,Electrical,Fire or explosive,Physical,Allergic reaction
What emergency first aid procedure should be used for external hemorrhage? Control the bleeding by elevation the affected part above the heart level and apply direct pressure to the wound. Never elevate a broken extremity.
What is the first aid for shock? Maintain open airway for victim,call for assistance, keep victim laying down with the head lower than the rest of the body,keep victim warm,attempt to control any known bleeding or cause of shock.
CPR stands for? Cardiopulmonary resucitation
What are the links in the chain of infection/infection control? Agent,mode of transmission,suseptible host,portal of entry,portal of exit.
What are the five main types of mode of transmission? Contact(direct or indirect),droplet,airborne,common vehicle,vectorborne.
What are some common entry sites for infection? Broken skin,mucous membranes and body syatems exposed to the external environment such as the respitory,gastrintestinal and reproductive systems.
The destruction of pathogenic microorganisms after they leave the body: Medical asepsis
What is the most important means of preventing the spread of infection? Handwashing
PPE stands for? Personal Protective Equipment
What PPE's are used in barrier protection? Gloves,masks,goggles,face shields,respirator.
What are the two tiers or levels of precautions regarding isolation procedures? Standard precautions and Transmission based precautions.
The sharps injury log must contain at a minimum: The type and brand of device involved in the incident,the department or work area where the exposure incident occurred,an explanation of how the incident occured.
What is informed consent? This is consent given by the patient who is made aware of any procedure to be performed,its risks,expected outcomes and alternitives.
What is negligence? This is the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonable person who give under similar circumstances and someone suffers injury because of another's failure to live up to a required duty of care.
What is the normal range for blood pressure? 90/60 140/90
The top number of a blood pressure reading is when the heart is contracting,called the ? Systolic
The bottom number of a blood pressure reading is when the heart is resting/relaxed,called the? Diastolic
Normal respiration rate? 12-14 BPM (Breathes)
Normal pulse/heartrate? 60-100 BPM (Beats)
Tachycardia Pulse/Heartrates above 100 BPM
Bradycardia Pulse/Heartrates below 60 BPM
Normal body temprature? 97.6F - 99.6F
Conversion formula from farenheit to celsius: Subtract 32 multiply 0.555
Conversion formula from celsius to farenheit: Multiply by 1.8 + 32
What is required of a patient during a fast? No food or strenuous exercise for 12hrs prior to blood draw
Proper order of draw: Blood cultures(black,yellow,light blue,red & marbled red(orange for stat),green,lavender(pink),grey,royal blue
Anticoagulant in the grey test tube: Powdered potassium oxalate and sodium fluoride
Anticoagulant in the orange STAT test tube: Thrombin clot activator
Light blue test tube tests: PT coumadin,PTT heparin,coagulation,protein S&C,lupus anticoagulant...
Red test tube tests: Blood grouping,RH factor,amebiasis,blastomycosis...
Red marbled/speckled test tube tests: Serum-serology...preg test...
Green test tube tests: Ammonia,kidney test,immune diseases,T&B cell count,histamine...
Lavender/pink test tube tests: CBC,morphology of RBC,reticulyte count,sickle cell,T&B cell count,blood film and differential...
Grey test tube tests: GTT,FBS,alcohol,cyanide,lactic acid,vitamin C...
Royal blue test tube tests: Trace metals-arsenic,lead,maganese,mercury,zinc,copper,chromium...
In the electrical circulation of blood,the sino atrial node fires for: FIRES-1MV 5sec
In the electrical circulation of blood,the atrial ventricle node holds for: HOLDS-1/10 sec
In the electrical circulation of blood,the AV bundle (bundle of his) does what? HELPS-Helps assist with the conduction of the impulse
In the electrical circulation of blood,the bundle branches do what? SEPERATES-Seperate at the bundle of his allowing blood to move from the L & R atria to the L & R ventricle
In the electrical circulation of blood,the purkinje fibers do what? PUSHES OUT-Network of fibers that work with the myracardial cells in the ventricles to help push the blood out of the heart
Created by: justlaura82
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