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Chapter 24

Vital Signs and Measurements

The body loses heat by a combination of what five processes? Convection, Conduction, Radiation, Evaporation, and Elimination
What is the normal average body temperature for an adult? 98.6 degrees fahrenheit or 37.0 degrees celsius.
Define afebrile. absence of fever
Define febrile. fever is present
Define pyrexia. Fever
Why are mercury thermometers no longer used? The mercury is dangerous to fetuses and the environment due to its toxicity.
What types of thermometers are available for use in the ambulatory care setting? Disposable, digital, electronic, tympanic, glass, temporal artery
What is the thermometer of choice for pediatric patients older than 2 years? Tympanic
What factors can cause a tympanic temperature reading to be inaccurate? impacted cerumen or otitis media
What type of thermometers should always be separated? oral and rectal.
What are the sites that can be used to detect pulse rates? radial, carotid, brachial, temporal, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, apical
Define arrhythmia. Abnormal rhythms of the pulse when either a beat is skipped or occurs sooner than expected.
What is the normal pulse rate for a newborn? 130-160 bpm
What is the normal pulse rate for an infant? 110-130 bpm
What is the normal pulse rate for a child between 1-7 years old? 80-120 bpm
What is the normal pulse rate for a child older than 7 years? 80-90 bpm
What is the normal pulse rate for an adult? 60-80 bpm
Define bradycardia. Pulse rate less than 60 bpm.
Define tachycardia. Pulse rate greater than 100 bpm.
Define PVC Premature Ventricular Contraction
Define eupnea. Normal respiratory rate.
What is the normal respiratory rate for an infant? 30-60 rpm
What is the normal respiratory rate for a child 1-7 years old? 18-30 rpm
What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult? 12-20 rpm
Define apnea. The temporary complete absence fo breathing.
How is sleep apnea treated? Weight loss and CPAP
What is narcolepsy? sleep disorder that causes patients to have daytime sleeping while driving, eating, or sitting in a movie theater.
Define tachypnea. respiratory rate greater than 40 rpm
Define bradypnea. a decrease in the number of respirations
Define Cheyne-Stokes. a regular pattern of irregular breathing rate.
Define hypoventilation. respiration is decreased in rate and shallow in depth
Define hyperventilation. a type of breathing in which the amounts of oxygen drawn in during inspiration are greatly increased, resulting in a decrease in the amount of blood carbon dioxide.
Asthma, pulmonary embolism or edema, and acute anxiety are associated with what respiratory disorder. hyperventilation
Define rales: rattling sounds heard during inspiration and expiration when the lung passageways contain secretions.
Define rhonchi. sounds similar to snoring usually produced by a rattle in the throat.
Define wheezes. high pitched musical sounds heard on expiration.
Asthma and emphysema are usually associated with what type of breath sound? Wheezes
Define systole. The force exerted on the arterial walls during cardiac contraction.
Define diastole. The force exerted during cardiac relaxation.
What is the sound heard during phase I of measuring blood pressure. a sharp tapping sound.
What is the sound heard during phase II of measuring blood pressure? a soft swishing sound
What is the sound heard during phase III of measuring blood pressure? a rhythmic tapping sound
What is the sound heard during phase IV of measuring blood pressure? a muffling and fading of the tapping sounds.
What is the sound heard during phase V of measuring blood pressure? all sounds disappear.
What two things must be kept in mind when measuring blood pressure? patient comfort and accuracy.
What is the normal blood pressure for a newborn? 50-52/25-30
Normal blood pressure for a child 6 years? 95/62
Normal blood pressure for a child 10 years? 100/65
Normal blood pressure for an adolescent 16 years? 118/75
Normal blood pressure for an adult? Systolic less than 120, Diastolic less than 80
Prehypertension 120-139/80-89
High blood pressure Above 140/90
What are the four types hypertension. primary or essential, secondary, benign, and malignant.
What is the range of blood pressure for hypertension stage 2? greater than 160/100
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