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Questions to prepare for national certification (AMT, NHA, AAMA).

What are anthropometric signs? Height and weight
What are vital signs? Temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure
Schedule I Drugs Illegal, high potential for abuse
Schedule II Drugs Need written Rx, high potential for abuse
Schedule III Drugs Limited dependence, potential for abuse
Schedule IV Drugs Decreased chance for abuse, can be called in to pharmacy
Schedule V Drugs Least chance for abuse
Signs Objective, visual illness indicators
Symptoms Subjective, implied illness indicators
Pharmacology Study of drugs, actions, dosages, and side effects
Pharmacokinetics Study of the action of drugs within the body based on administration, rate of absorption, duration of action, and elimination from the body
Pharmacodynamics Study of how drugs act on the body in specific cells, tissues, and organs
PPE order of donning Gown, mask, goggles, gloves
PPE order of removal Gloves, goggles, gown, mask
Normal adult heart rate 60-100 bpm
Normal adult blood pressure 120/80 mm Hg
Hypertension starts at 150/90 mm Hg
Width of BP cuff? 40-50% of arm circumference
Intramuscular injection 90°
Subcutaneous injection 45°
Intradermal injection 15°
6 rights of medication administration? Patient, medication, route, time, documentation, dose
55% of blood is made up of? Plasma
Most important antisepsis for MA? Hand washing
Normal body temperature 98.6° F, 37° C
Time to wait before retaking BP? 2 minutes
Highest level of infection control? Sterilization
Phlebotomy order of draw Yellow, clear, light blue, red, gold/tiger top, mint green, dark green, lavender, grey
Lavender tube additive EDTA
Light blue tube additive Sodium citrate
Green tube additive Heparin
What is used to clean a routine venipuncture site? 70% isopropyl alcohol
Antecubital veins Median cubital, cephalic, basilic
Maximum heel puncture depth 2 mm
Permanent fusion of an artery and vein Fistula
Electrolytes Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium
Where to apply tourniquet? 3-4" above antecubital collection site
Maximum number of venipuncture attempts from phlebotomist or MA? 2
Maximum time to leave tourniquet on? 1 minute
Needle angle for antecubital venipuncture? 30°
Needle angle for hand venipuncture? 10°
Needle gauge Larger lumen, smaller needle
What are CEUs? Continuing Education Units - maintain certification, i.e. participation in workshops
ECG Electrocardiogram - Noninvasive test that records electrical activity of the heart
V1 chest lead 4th intercostal space, right sternal border
V2 chest lead 4th intercostal space, left sternal border
V3 chest lead Between V2 and V4
V4 chest lead 5th intercostal space, left mid clavicular line
V5 chest lead 5th intercostal space, left anterior axillary line
V6 chest lead 5th intercostal space, mid axillary line
Grounding lead Right leg
Limb leads Right arm, left arm, left leg
Three layers of the heart Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
Blood pressure sounds Kortokoff sounds - 1st is systolic, 5th is diastolic
Contracting phase of the heart Systole
Relaxing phase of the heart Diastole
Pacemaker of the heart SA node
Electrical conduction of the heart SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers, bundle of His
Average amount of blood in the body? 5 liters
The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the Pulmonary veins
Heart has potential energy for the next cardiac cycle Polarization
Heart relaxes and gains energy to pump Repolarization
ECG horizontal line represents Time
ECG vertical line represents Voltage
ECG waves P, Q, R, S, T
Segment Line between waveforms
Waveform Movement away from baseline
Complex Several waveforms together
Interval Waveform + segment
Four primary characteristics of cardiac cells Automaticity, conductivity, contractility, excitability
Blood enters the heart from the body through the Vena cava
The right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the Right atrium
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart
Veins Carry blood toward the heart
P wave Atrial depolarization
QRS complex Ventricular depolarization
T wave Ventricular repolarization
AV node pause 1/10th second
AV node firing rate 40-60 bpm
SA node firing rate 60-100 bpm
Anterior Front of the body
Posterior Back of the body
Lateral Side of the body
Prone Laying face down
Supine Laying face up
Fowler's position Sitting
Dorsal recumbent position Laying on back with knees up
Sims position Laying on left side with left arm and shoulder behind body, right leg and arm sharply flexed on table, left knee slightly flexed
Lithotomy position Laying on back with buttocks on the lower end of the table with feet in stirrups
Machine for steam sterilizing medical instruments Autoclave
Childhood immunizations DTaP, HIB, MMR, HBV, VZV, IPV
Adult immunizations Influenza, pneumococcal, herpes zoster, tetanus
Pediatric dosage calculation Child's BSA (body surface area) in m² x adult dose / 1.7 m²
Surgical hand washing 10 minutes - hands, wrists, forearms
CC Chief complaint
Dx Diagnosis
Tx Treatment
abx Antibiotics
Rx Prescription
Bx Biopsy
STAT Now, immediately
PI Present illness
Dys Painful, bad, difficult
NKA No known allergies
NKDA No known drug allergies
ROM Range of motion
PH Past history
ROS Review of systems
FH Family history
SH Social history
c/o Complaining of
prn As needed
DAW Dispense as written
sig Label, give the following
sl Sublingual
gt/gtt Drop/drops
-tomy Incise, cut into
-ectomy Removal
-tripsy Crush, break
-opsy To view
-scope Instrument used to view
-ism Condition of
-itis Inflammation
-oma Opening
-ical Pertaining to
HIPAA Health Insurance Protection & Portability Act
Informed consent Permission given with knowledge of possible consequences
Expressed consent Permission given verbally or in writing
Visual acuity chart Snellen chart
PPD tests for Tuberculosis
Normal blood glucose 70-150 mg/dl
Normal hemoglobin 13-17 g/dL (men), 12-15 g/dL (women)
Normal oxygen saturation 96-100%
Urine specimen collected to test for a UTI Mid stream clean-catch
Best time to test urine Hcg levels First morning urine
Most important hand washing factors Friction, soap, warm running water
Universal blood donor O negative
Infection acquired in a medical facility Nosocomial infection
How many 1 mm boxes in a 6 second rhythm strip? 30
Average needle gauge for venipuncture 21-22
Best site for capillary puncture Fleshy portion of ring or middle finger, slightly to the side of center and perpendicular to whorls
Why does the first drop of blood from a capillary puncture get wiped away? Prevent tissue fluid contamination
Order of draw for capillary puncture Lavender tubes, additive tubes, non-additive tubes
Hypertension High blood pressure
Hypotension Low blood pressure
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Tachycardia Fast heart rate
Bradycardia Slow heart rate
Tissue death from lack of oxygen to the heart Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Chest pain from lack of blood flow to the heart Angina pectoris
Abnormal heart sound Heart murmur
Heart fluttering, skipped beats, hard or fast beat Heart palpitation
Hardening of the arteries Arteriosclerosis
Device to help heart maintain adequate rhythm Pacemaker
Test measuring blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing to se how the heart responds to stress - often performed on a treadmill Stress test
Young, soft bone bends and breaks - simplest fracture Greenstick fracture
Broken ends of bone do not pierce through skin Closed fracture
Bone pierces through skin Open/compound fracture
Bone is splintered or broken into many pieces Comminuted fracture
Bringing two bones closer together Flexion
Increasing the angle between two bones, resulting in a straightening motion Extension
Movement toward midsection Adduction
Movement of an extremity away from midline Abduction
Recommended body mass index (BMI) 19-25
Total water in body weight 55-65%
Instrument used to test neurological reflexes Percussion hammer
Instrument used for auscultation of heart, lungs, and bowels Stethoscope
Instrument used for taking blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
Instrument used to view eyes Ophthalmoscope
Instrument used to view ears Otoscope
Basic two dimensional radiograph commonly performed in a physician's office X-ray
Detailed radiograph that permits cross-sectional views of a body region CT scan
Test using a magnetic field and nonionizing radiation to produce images of the body MRI
Use of high-frequency, inaudible sound waves to produce images based on echoes Ultrasound
Auscultation Listening to body regions with a stethoscope
Manipulation Passive movement of joints to assess extent of movement
Palpation Use of hands and/or fingertips to assess/feel for positions and sizes of organs, masses, lumps, or other abnormalities; skin moisture/temperature, and joint flexibility
Percussion Assessing density of body structures by tapping
Correct way to wrap a limb Distal to proximal
Maximum amount of time before suture removal 10 days
What should the MA note when changing wound dressing? Color, odor, amount of drainage
# of thoracic vertebrae 12
# of lumbar vertebrae 5
# of cervical vertebrae 7
Undesirable affect Adverse reaction
Hypersensitivity Allergic reaction
Most serious heat emergency Heat stroke
Surgical asepsis Using sterile technique
Opening or separation of an incision site Dehiscence
Open wound Avulsion
First step in medical emergency Assess responsiveness
What do you do if victim is breathing but has no pulse? Chest compressions
Clear wound drainage Serous
Bloody wound drainage Sanguineous
Blood tinged wound drainage Serosanguineous
Grey, green, or yellow drainage Purulent
Symptoms of shock Rapid, weak pulse and breathing; cold, pale skin
Color blindness test Ishihara test
Test associated with rectal exam Occult blood test
Test associated with vaginal exam Pap smear
Position used for rectal exam Sims position
Position used for vaginal exam Lithotomy position
Instrument used for vaginal exam Speculum
Position for patients with difficulty breathing Fowler's position
Low blood pressure that occurs when standing up from sitting or laying down Orthostatic hypotension
Positions used for orthostatic vital signs Standing, sitting, supine
Forms of sterilization Heat, liquid, gas
Components of autoclave Stream, pressure, temperature, time
Instrument used to move instruments and supplies on a sterile field Transfer forceps
Instrument used to grasp blood vessels Hemostat
Scissors with blunt tip on bottom blade Bandage scissors
Knives of varying blades and sizes used for cutting, dissecting, and incising Scalpels
Instrument used to grasp, crimp, and move tissue Forceps
Instrument used for scraping Curette
Outer layers of skin removed from scraping Abrasion
Top layers of skin are bruised and bleeding occurs below skin from blunt trauma Contusion
Smooth cut made from surgery Incision
Jagged cut with irregular wound edges Laceration
Small, round hole in skin and tissues from a sharp, pointed object Puncture
How many times do you invert a venipuncture collection tube? 10
Test that measures patient's response to various tones Audiometry
Instrument used to measure volume and flow of air Spirometer
Medicine administered between cheek and gum Buccal
Medicine administered under the tongue Sublingual
Medicine administered on the skin via a patch Transdermal
Burn with only superficial damage First degree burn
Burn involving epidermis, dermis, and some subcutaneous tissue Second degree burn
Burn involving all skin layers and possibly some muscle and bone Third degree burn
Excessive, uncontrolled bleeding Hemorrhage
Low blood sugar Hypoglycemia
High blood sugar Hyperglycemia
Neurological condition often presenting as uncontrolled tremors or jerking movement Seizures
Partial or complete loss of consciousness due to decreased circulation in the brain Syncope
Skin makes up how much total body weight? 18%
Muscle most often used for IM injections Deltoid
Method of injection used to prevent irritation to subcutaneous tissues; skin is pulled to one side before injection and released after injection Z-track
Temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain causing stroke-like symptoms Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Instrument used to test for auditory acuity and bone vibration Tuning fork
ECG paper speed 22 mm/s
Interruptions or disturbances in the ECG strip caused by activity outside of the heart Artifacts
ECG movement that results from electrodes that are too tight or loose, dirty, or patient has oily skin Wandering baseline
Absence of heart rate Asystole
Heart beat that originates outside of the SA node Ectopic beat
Uncoordinated ventricular contractions Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular rate of 150-300 bpm Ventricular flutter
Atrial rate of 350-500 bpm Atrial fibrillation
Contraction of ventricles that occurs early Premature ventricular contraction
Atrial contraction that occurs early Premature atrial contraction
Atrial tachycardia that occurs and subsides suddenly Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
Atrial rate of 250-350 bpm that produces a "saw tooth" pattern Atrial flutter
Small block on ECG paper 1 mm x 1 mm; represents 0.1 mV vertical and 0.04 s horizontal
Large block on ECG paper 5 mm x 5 mm; represents 0.5 mV vertical and 5 blocks = 1 s
ECG 6 second rule Number of complete complexes in strip x 10
ECG 300 rule Number of large boxes between R waves / 300
ECG 1500 rule Number of small boxes between 2 consecutive R waves / 1500
Portable device that monitors heart rhythm continuously for 24-48 hours by electrodes attached to chest Holter monitor
Study of the heart's electrical system Electrophysiology
Dilation of an arterial vessel wall or heart chamber due to weakening or ballooning Aneurysm
Hardening and thickening of the arteries with plaque and lipid accumulation Coronary artery disease (CAD)
Heart fails to generate adequate blood output Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Blood clot Thrombus
Mass that enters the bloodstream Embolism
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart that causes permanent valve damage Endocarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium Pericarditis
Impaired blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle Mitral valve stenosis
Blood flow in the wrong direction Valvular regurgitation
Disease of the heart muscle Cardiomyopathy
Localized collection of blood Hematoma
Removal of a small section of tissue for examination Biopsy
Removal of dead skin tissue Debridement
Five types of bones Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
Patient education steps Identify topic and purpose, assess patient's ability and needs, develop plan, implement plan, document, evaluate patient understanding, reevaluate on follow up
Patient preparation for minor office surgery Hair removal, skin cleaning, draping
DTaP vaccine Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
MMR vaccine Measles, mumps, rubella
Cranial cavity Brain
Spinal cavity Spinal cord
Thoracic cavity Lungs, heart, large blood vessels
Abdominal cavity Stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys
Pelvic cavity Urinary bladder, urinary structures, reproductive organs
Solid, elevated 1 cm lesion Papule
Solid, elevated 1-2 cm lesion Nodule
Elevated, fluid-filled lesion Pustule
Flat, elevated lesion Plaque
Condition of decreased bone mass and density Osteoporosis
Type of arthritis that occurs when flexible tissue at the end of bones wears down Osteoarthritis
Type of arthritis caused by excess uric acid in the joints Gout
Medical term for nose bleed Epistaxis
Organ that produces bile and breaks down waste Liver
Organ that filters blood Spleen
Organ that produces enzymes for digestion Pancreas
Organ that stores bile Gallbladder
What is the function of lymph? Sends leaked interstitial fluid into the venous system, assists with immunity, and helps filter blood
Condition in which blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells Anemia
Involuntary muscle or other movement by patient seen on ECG Somatic tremors
Destroying tissue by freezing Cryosurgery
Cutting and cauterization of skin and tissues using an electrical current Electrosurgery
Use of a special instrument to examine the inside of the body Endoscopy
Use of narrow beams for diagnostic and treatment applications Laser surgery
Tube containing serum separator Gold/tiger
Tube used for coagulation studies Light blue
How much urine should be collected for a specimen? 30-50 ml
Needle gauge for intradermal injection 25-27
How many lb in 1 kg? 2.2 lb
Body's ability to maintain normal state Homeostasis
Room temperature urine specimens begin to deteriorate after 1 hour
Chemical properties of urine pH, blood, glucose
Components of urinalysis Physical, chemical, microscopic
Three types of blood cells Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
Most abundant leukocytes in human body Neutrophils
Leukocytes that increase with inflammation Basophils
Essential component of hemoglobin Iron
Breakdown of food into usable units to provide growth and energy production Metabolism
Medication with quickest action Intravenous
Age for baseline ECG 40 years
Physical examination for patients 20-40 year old Every 1-3 years
Age to start mammograms 40 years (women)
NPO Nothing by mouth
PO By mouth
q Every
h Hour
ac Before meals
pc After meals
qd Every day
qod Every other day
qh Every hour
bid Twice daily
tid Three times daily
qid Four times daily
hs Hour of sleep (bedtime)
qhs Every hour of sleep (bedtime)
f/u Follow up
cxr Chest x-ray
d/c Discontinue
Melan/o Black
Leuk/o White
Erythr/o Red
Cyan/o Blue
SOB Shortness of breath
-algia Pain
Nephr/o Kidney
Hepat/o Liver
Cardi/o Heart
Ot/o Ear
Opthalm/o Eye
My/o Muscle
Oste/o Bone
Gastr/o Stomach
Hemat/o Blood
Pneum/o Lung
Cost/o Rib
Cephal/o Head
Enter/o Intestines
Hyster/o Uterus
Oophor/o Ovary
Salping/o Fallopian tube
Orchi/o Testicle
Gravid/o Pregnancy
Prostat/o Prostate
Phleb/o Vein
Myring/o, tympan/o Eardrum
-emesis Vomiting
-pnea Breathing
-emia Condition of blood
-sclerosis Hardening
-centesis Puncture to remove fluid
-plasty Surgical repair
-graph Instrument for reading
-uria Condition of urine
-lysis Destruction
-rrhea Flow/discharge
MA administrative duties Greet patients, answer phones, update and file medical records, fill out insurance forms, schedule appointments, handle billing and bookkeeping, arrange hospital admission and laboratory services
MA clinical duties Take medical histories, record vital signs, explain procedures, prepare patients for exams, assist physician with exams and procedures, perform ECG, collect and prepare lab specimens (urine, blood), administer medications and injections, etc.
Inflammation of lungs due to aspiration, bacteria, virus, fungus, or protozoa Pneumonia
Inflammation of the bronchioles Bronchitis
Stoppage of breathing Apnea
Nasal drainage Rhinorrhea
Painful urination Dysuria
Kidney stones Nephrolithiasis
Inflammation of the bladder Cystitis
Inflammation of the stomach Gastritis
Also known as acid reflux, condition that affects the lower esophageal sphincter GERD
Erosive area on stomach lining Peptic ulcer
Inflammation of the appendix Appendicitis
Inflammation of diverticula in the colon Diverticulitis
Master gland that releases numerous hormones Pituitary gland
Gland that secretes thyroxine and triiodothyronine Thyroid gland
Glands that secrete corticosteroids Adrenal glands
Gland that secretes melatonin and various neurotransmitters Pineal gland
Deficiency in insulin production or poor insulin usage Diabetes mellitus
Excess production of thyroid hormones Hyperthyroidism
Underactive thyroid gland Hypothyroidism
Demyelination of the central nervous system Multiple sclerosis
Chronic seizure disorder Epilepsy
Infarction of the brain due to lack of blood flow Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
Nearsightedness Myopia
Farsightedness Hyperopia
Double vision Diplopia
Crossed eyes Strabismus
Irregular curvature of the cornea Astigmatism
Inflammation of the lining of the eyelid known as "pink eye" Conjunctivitis
Accumulation of excess intraocular aqueous humor Glaucoma
Clouding of the lens due to protein accumulation Cataract
Infection and inflammation of the middle ear Otitis media
Infection and inflammation of the outer ear Otitis externa
Painful menstruation Dysmenorrhea
Absence of menstruation Amenorrhea
Bleeding in between menstrual cycles Metorrhagia
Increase in bleeding amount and duration Menorrhagia
First pregnancy Primigravida
More than one pregnancy Multipara
Pregnancy outside of the uterus Ectopic pregnancy
Surgical removal of the uterus Hysterectomy
Surgical removal of the ovaries Oophorectomy
Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries Salpingo-oophorectomy
Infection and inflammation of the reproductive tract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Yeast infection Candidiasis
Uterine fibroids Leiomyomas
Condition of pregnancy characterized by edema, hypertension, and proteinuria Eclampsia
Excess protein in urine Proteinuria
Accumulation of fluid in tissues, causing swelling Edema
Miscarriage that occurs naturally Spontaneous abortion
Scraping of uterine lining Dilation and curettage (D&C)
Magnified direct inspection of the cervix to detect cancer or other abnormalities Colposcopy
Test to screen for cervical cancer Papanicolaou (Pap) smear
Removal of a portion of the vas deferens Vasectomy
Surgical procedure to lower undescended testes Orchiopexy
Inflammation of the urethra Urethritis
Infection of the kidney Pyelonephritis
Gradual, progressive loss of kidney function resulting in insufficiency Chronic renal failure
Blood in urine Hematuria
Condition characterized by painful, frequent urination Urinary tract infection (UTI)
-rrhaphy Suturing
-pathy Disease
-plegia Paralysis
-plasty Repair
-graphy Recording
-ostomy Surgical creation of an opening
Branch of medicine specializing in infants, children, and adolescents Pediatrics
Branch of medicine specializing in the elderly Gerontology
Branch of medicine specializing in blood Hematology
Branch of medicine specializing in the kidneys Nephrology
Branch of medicine specializing in the ears, nose, and throat Otolaryngology
Branch of medicine specializing in women's health Gynecology
Branch of medicine specializing in the eyes Ophthalmology
Branch of medicine specializing in cancer prevention and treatment Oncology
Branch of medicine specializing in the heart Cardiology
Branch of medicine specializing in the liver Hepatology
Branch of medicine specializing in the skin Dermatology
Branch of medicine specializing in the GI tract Gastroenterology
Branch of medicine specializing in the endocrine glands Endocrinology
Branch of medicine specializing in the nervous system Neurology
Branch of medicine specializing in the lungs Pulmonology
Branch of medicine specializing in the medical use of x-rays or other radiation Radiology
Branch of medicine specializing in pregnancy and childbirth Obstetrics
Branch of medicine specializing in the urinary system Urology
Branch of medicine specializing in joint conditions Rheumatology
Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders Psychiatry
Branch of medicine specializing in vein incision Phlebotomy
What is the preferred collection site for venipuncture? Antecubital fossa
Where to collect blood from an arm with an IV line? Below the IV site or on the other arm
What does a general minor surgery tray contain? 4 towel clips, scalpel, curved and straight hemostats, scissors, forceps, needle holder, sponges, sutures, and drapes
What does a suture tray contain? Towel clips, curved hemostat, forceps with teeth, thumb forceps, sutures, scissors, needle holder, gauze, and drapes
What does a suture removal tray contain? Scissors, thumb forceps, and gauze
What does a staple removal tray contain? Staple remover and gauze
Common antiseptic skin cleansing solution used for surgery Betadine
Proper solution for cleaning blood spills 1:9 bleach solution
Main federal agency charged with the enforcement of safety and health legislation Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Federal regulatory standards that apply to all clinical laboratory testing performed on humans in the United States Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)
Organization that accredits more than 21,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States Joint Commission
Summary in the patient's own words explaining why they are seeking medical services Chief complaint
Patient's past health status Medical history
Medical history of the patient's biological family members Family history
Patient's past and present exposures and personal habits, such as drinking and smoking Social history
Interview technique used to question patients about organ systems Review of systems
What is an appropriate technique to ensure the patient was listening? Ask them to repeat back what you said (i.e. post surgery instructions, medications)
Neurological test used to determine balance when the patient is standing erect with their eyes closed Romberg test
The average adult has how many liters of blood? 5-6
Imaginary plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves Midsagittal plane
Imaginary plane dividing the body into upper and lower halves Transverse plane
Imaginary plane dividing the body into front and back halves Coronal plane
Intradermal injection needle length 1-1 1/2"
Subcutaneous injection needle length 5/8-1/2"
Intramuscular injection needle length 1/4-1/2"
Machine that rapidly rotates specimens, using centrifugal force to separate substances; commonly used for blood and urine in a medical setting. Centrifuge
How long should urine be centrifuged? 5 minutes
Normal urine color Straw
Container used for disposal of needles Sharps container
When is the best time to collect a sputum sample? First thing in the morning
What is the normal range for an HbA1c test? 4-5.9%
Procedure used to remove earwax (cerumen) Ear irrigation or lavage
Surgical removal of the gallbladder Cholecystectomy
Surgical removal of the appendix Appendectomy
Surgical removal of the tonsils Tonsillectomy
Surgical removal of a kidney Nephrectomy
What is a blood culture used to check for? Bacteria
What color does gram positive bacteria stain? Purple
What is Gram's method? A method of staining used to differentiate bacterial species into two large groups, gram positive and gram negative
How long can culture and sensitivity tests be kept at room temperature? 72 hours
What type of urine collection is required for culture and sensitivity testing? Mid stream clean-catch
Documentation method used for charting - subjective, objective, assessment, and plan SOAP method
Describes the patient’s current condition in narrative form, including chief complaint Subjective
Documents objective, repeatable, and traceable facts about the patient’s status Objective
Physician’s medical diagnoses for the medical visit on the given date Assessment
Describes what the health care provider will do to treat the patient – ordering labs, referrals, procedures performed, medications prescribed, etc. Plan
Scheduling two or more patients in the same appointment slot Double-booking
Grouping of similar appointments together in the same day or week Cluster scheduling
Specific number of patients scheduled at the top of the hour Wave scheduling
Hour long scheduling blocks broken down into smaller increments, usually 10-15 minutes Modified wave scheduling
Most common scheduling; patient given an appointment based on length of time needed Time specific scheduling
Too many gaps between appointments Underbooking
Protection against losses from illness, injury, disability, and accidental death or dismemberment Health insurance
Insurance that covers only specific medical expenses Medical insurance
Federal government program for those who qualify due to low income Medicaid
Federal government program for those over the age of 65 or with specific disabilities Medicare
Contracts to individuals or groups that cover specific medical expenses Prepaid health plans
Health insurance provided to a group, usually employees, which provides coverage in the form of a lump sum payment or periodic payments Group health insurance
Portion of expense that the insured must pay before the person is entitled to benefits from the insurer Deductible
Arrangement in which the insured pays a specified amount for various services and the health care provider pays the remainder; typically payed at time of appointment. Copayment
Reimbursement is made to the provider based on a predetermined reimbursement leveL Prospective payment system (PPS)
Medicare Part A Hospital insurance
Medicare Part B Supplemental insurance; medically necessary physician services, outpatient hospital and physical therapy services, speech pathology, etc.
Medicare Part C Managed care plans that save out-of-pocket costs + extra benefits such as prescription drugs, dental care, and eye exams
Medicare Part D Prescription drug plan
Organization of hospitals and physicians who provide services to insurance company clients PPO
Prepaid medical service plan where patients must use contracted providers HMO
Covers most health care services for veterans, their dependents and survivors CHAMPVA
Covers health care services for active military personnel TRICARE
Codes used for reporting various diagnoses International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
Current coding revision ICD-10-CM
Listing of standardized alphanumeric codes medical coders use to report services Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)
What are the four stages of the infectious process? Incubation, prodromal, acute illness, convalescent
Organisms establish presence in the susceptible host Incubation stage
Symptoms of infection begin to appear Prodromal stage
Organisms are growing and spreading inside the host Acute illness
Damaged tissue begins healing and symptoms resolve Convalescent stage
What is the chain of infection? Causative organism, reservoir, method of exit, mode of transmission from reservoir to host, susceptible host, and mode of entry into the host
What is the inflammatory response? Body attacks and destroys microorganisms and renovates tissue after injury, damage, or death
What are the five indications of local inflammation? Redness, warmth, swelling, pain, loss of function
What are the two indications of systemic inflammation? Fever and increase of white blood cells
What are standard precautions? Universal level of precautions used when caring for any patient
What are the three transmission based precautions? Contact, droplet, airborne
Wearing gloves, gown, and shoes, and designating equipment use for a single patient is using Contact precautions
Wearing masks, face shields, and goggles is using Droplet precautions
Wearing a respirator is using Airborne precautions
What is the role of the MA in surgical asepsis? Monitoring the surgical field to decrease patient risk
What are the four environmental safety measures? Fire, electrical, radiation, and poison
What temperature and time is used to sterilize instruments with dry heat? 320° F for 1 hour
What temperature and time is used to sterilize instruments with steam in the autoclave? 250-254° F for 20-40 minutes
Normal adult respiration rate 12-20 breaths per minute
Healthy blood pressure values Systolic 100-139, diastolic 60-79
Hypothermia is defined as a temperature below 95° F
What are the causes of hypothermia? Shock, environment, exposure to elements, thyroid disorders
Fever is defined as a temperature above 100.4° F
What are the causes of fever? Infection, stress, dehydration, exercise, environment, thyroid disorders
What is the role of the MA in the physical exam? Prepare and clean exam room and equipment, prepare patient by giving instructions, help with draping and gowning, and assisting the physician.
Size of capillary puncture blade for adults 3 mm
Size of capillary puncture blade for children 2.4 mm
What tests are CLIA waived? Urinalysis (dipstick and tablet reagent), occult blood, urine Hcg, blood glucose, ESR, Hgb, Hct, strep A, and ovulation testing
What departments are used for blood testing? Hematology, coagulation studies, blood chemistry, immunology, and microbiology
Invasive procedure performed to visually examine and take biopsies from the GI tract Colonoscopy
Special scope used to visually examine the larynx, bronchi, and trachea Bronchoscopy
Small device used to assess blood oxygen concentration Pulse oximeter
Insertion of a catheter into a patient's artery or vein so that dye and x-ray viewing can be used for diagnostic purposes Angiography
Pounds to kilograms Pounds / 2.2
Kilograms to pounds Kilograms x 2.2
What equipment is included on a crash cart? PPE, CPR mask, one-way breathing valve device, bag-valve-mask, oxygen, first aid supplies, necessary medications
How do you control hemorrhage? Apply direct pressure to the area, apply new dressing and continue pressure when dressing is soaked with blood, elevate area above heart level
How do you treat first-degree burns? Apply cool compress for pain relief and prevent infection by applying a dry sterile dressing
How do you treat second-degree burns? Cool skin with cold water or compress and apply a dry sterile dressing
How do you treat third-degree burns? Cover injured area with a sterile cloth and apply cool sterile water or saline, keep patient in supine position with head lower than the body, remove any loose clothing or jewelry near the burn
How do you help a choking patient? Perform the Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrust) if patient is conscious, attempt to remove object in supine position if patient is unconscious
How do you treat chest pain? Keep patient calm, warm, and quiet; monitor and record vitals, administer nitroglycerine per physician's order, apply oxygen, perform ECG, be prepared to perform CPR
How do you treat hypoglycemia? Give a form of simple sugar (juice, crackers, candy), perform a finger-stick blood glucose test, give a form of protein (milk, meat, peanut butter) if level remains low
How do you treat hyperglycemia? Notify the physician and follow orders
How do you treat seizures? Move items away from patient, make sure clothing isn't affecting circulation, monitor for excessive saliva or vomiting and move patient to side if needed, allow rest and privacy, transport to hospital per physician's orders
How do you treat shock? Assess ABCs, administer supplemental oxygen, position patient's extremities above heart level, closely monitor vitals, provide support, transfer to emergency services
How do you treat syncope? Assist patient to lay down, apply cool cloth or ammonia to stimulate consciousness, assess ABCs, monitor vitals, elevate legs higher than head, keep patient warm, calm, and quiet
Breaking down of organic matter Catabolism
Building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids Anabolism
Chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life Metabolism
What nutrients does the human body need for growth, energy, and development? Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, sugars, vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, water
Deficiency of nutrients Malnutrition
Which vitamins are water soluble? B, C
Which vitamins are fat soluble? A, D, E, K
Toward the upper body region Superior
Toward the lower body region Inferior
Front side of the body Anterior
Back side of the body Posterior
Skin makes up how much of the body's weight? 18%
Common human phenomenon characterized by an intense fear or dread related to a known or unknown cause Anxiety
Relationship between a person and his or her environment that arises when he or she feels pressure or overwhelming feelings related to a situation, event, person, place, or thing Stress
A person's judgment of her or her own worth and value Self-esteem
Who developed the Theory of Psychosocial Development? Erikson
At what age would a child develop autonomy vs. shame and doubt? 18 months-3 years
At what age would a child develop identity vs. role confusion? 12-20 years
Who developed the Theory of Developmental Learning? Piaget
What are the four periods of developmental learning? Sensorimotor (birth-2 years), preoperational (2-6 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), formal operations (12-adult)
Who developed the model for the five stages of grief? Kübler-Ross
What are the five stages of grief? Denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
What is the transferring of feelings for a threatening person, place, or thing to one that is neutral? Displacement
What is the assignment of feelings or motivation to another person, place, or thing? Projection
What are learned external behaviors and internal thought processes that are used to decrease discomfort and pain? Coping mechanisms
What is the demonstration of behavior characteristics from a earlier developmental stage? Regression
What are important communication skills for an MA? Active listening, asking open-ended questions to gain further understanding, paying attention to patient's non-verbal communication (gestures, facial expressions, etc.) as well as verbal communication
At most, how many times should the phone ring before answering? 3
As an MA doing phone triage, how can you manage the physician's time? Screening calls - refer necessary calls only and take messages for other calls.
What would violate HIPAA when leaving a phone message for a patient? Giving any information about the patient's diagnoses, test results, medications, or procedures
Instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional Malpractice
Patient has been seen within 3-5 years, depending on the practice's policy Active patient file
Patient has not been seen within 3-5 years , depending on the practice's policy Inactive patient file
Patient is deceased, has moved, or has reached legal age limit Closed patient file
What method is used to destroy a medical record? Shredding
Medical records filed by the units of the patient's name Alphabetic filing system
Each patient is assigned a medical record number and the numbers are cross-references with an alphabetic (master) file Numeric filing system
Medical records are filed in coordination with number and/or letters and each letter, group of letters, number, or group of numbers is designated with a specific color Color coding system
Who owns a patient's medical record? The medical facility
Annually updated manual of prescription drugs Physicians' Desk Reference
Documenting information in a medical record, including reports, test results, and consultation notes Documentation or charting
Contains all rules and protocols relevant to the medical office Policy and Procedure Manual
Drugs that prevent and treat infections Anti-infectives
Drugs that prevent vomiting Antiemetics
Drugs that relieve pain without causing anesthesia Analgesics
Drugs that prevent and treat bacterial infections Antibiotics
Drugs that reduce pain and inflammation Anti-inflammatory
Drug administered through a vein Intravenous (IV)
Drug applied to the skin Topical
Created by: caitlime
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