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Lab Practical #3!

Ms. Ropski Lab Practical on Respiratory, Excretion and Urinary, and Reproduction

QuestionAnswer
Pulmonary Ventilation -aka Breathing -2 parts: inspiration (air is taken into lungs) & Expiration (air passes out of lungs)
Boyle's Law -pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume
Spirometry -technique for measuring lung volumes and capacities -A person's size, gender, and physical condition produce variations in respiratory volumes.
Tidal Volume (TV) amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting condtition -Clinical range: 500 mL for females and males -To conduct: inhale and exhale normally
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) the maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation -clinical: 900 to 1900 mL for females and 2300 to 3300 mL for males -IRV = VC - TV - ERV
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) the maximum amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation -Clinical: 600-800 mL for females and 1000-1200 mL for males -to conduct exhale normally then forcibly exhale into spirometer (don't inhale)
Vital Capacity (VC) the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inhalation -Clinical: 2900-3100 mL females and 4500-4800 mL males -to conduct: breathe in and out normally 2 or 3 times then forcibly inhale and exhale all of the air in your body
Spirometer -measures repiratory volumes -2 types: -1) dry or handheld wheel -2) wet or Phipps and Bird spirometer
BTPS Factor -Body, Temp, atmospheric pressure, and water saturation -is 1.1 -used because the pressure and temp inside the spirometer are influenced by room temp and differ from those in the body.
Minute Respiratory Volume(MRV) volume of air moved into respiratory passageways in one minute MRV= TV x respirations/min
Residual Volume (RV) The amount of air remaining in the lungs after a mix expiratory effort. -cannot be measured -clinical: 1100mL Females 1200mL males - RV = VC x factor
Pseudostratified Cilliated Columnar Epithelium -lines the lumen of the larynx, trachea and upper respiratory tract.
Simple Squamous Epithelium -in aveoli -allows for gas exchange
Hyaline Cartilage -makes up the 9 cartilages that make up the larynx and the tracheal rings
Elastic Cartilage located in the epiglottis
Spirometer -measures repiratory volumes -2 types: -1) dry or handheld wheel -2) wet or Phipps and Bird spirometer
BTPS Factor -Body, Temp, atmospheric pressure, and water saturation -is 1.1 -used because the pressure and temp inside the spirometer are influenced by room temp and differ from those in the body.
Minute Respiratory Volume(MRV) volume of air moved into respiratory passageways in one minute MRV= TV x respirations/min
Residual Volume (RV) The amount of air remaining in the lungs after a mix expiratory effort. -cannot be measured -clinical: 1100mL Females 1200mL males - RV = VC x factor
Pseudostratified Cilliated Columnar Epithelium -lines the lumen of the larynx, trachea and upper respiratory tract.
Simple Squamous Epithelium -in aveoli -allows for gas exchange
Hyaline Cartilage -makes up the 9 cartilages that make up the larynx and the tracheal rings
Elastic Cartilage located in the epiglottis
What is the primary function of the kidney? -to regulate the composition of the plasma and body tissue fluid.
What do the kidneys regulate? 1-the volume of blood plasma by adjusting the amount of water excreted in uring 2- the concentration of electrolytes 3-the concentration of nitrogenout metabolic waste products in plasma 4-pH of plasma
Urine -waste product of our body -modified filtrate of the plasma -25-35 grams of urea excreted in a 24-hour period
What are the 3 basic processes that make urine? -Glomerular flitration -Tubular reabsorption -tubular secretion
What did we use in all of the plasma tests -bovine serum (cow plasma)
Urinalysis observing the physicalcharacteristics of a urine sample and testing for the presence of certain organic and inorganic substances
Color of urine Normal urine varies from pale yellow to dark amber depending on the presence of urochromes
Urochromes pigments produced during the decomp of hemoglobin hemoglogin->Hematin->Bilirubin->urochomogen->urochrome
How does diet affect urine? Pigments in certain foods may be excreted in urine and aler the color. ex: carots cause urine to be more ellow due to carotene, beets cause reddening, rhubarb causes urine to be brown
How does the concentration affect urine? The more concentrated to urine, the darker its color. Very concentrated urine may be dark yellow or brown. Very dilute uring may have only a tint of yellow.
How do medications affect urine? -some medications (like certain vitamins) may also affect the color of urine
What transparency should urine and plasma be? Urine should be clear, plasma should be slightly cloudy
Odor of urine -varies with dietary intake -some foold such as asparagus and cabbage may give urine a strong odor -offensive odor sometimes caused by exretion of certain drugs -odor comes from ammonium carbonate caused by bacterial decomp of urea
pH of urine -can be b/w 4.8-8.0, but most is around 6.0 -meats make it more acidic (5.0-6.0, vegetables make it more basic (7.0-8.0)
What inorganic ions did we test for? -ammonium -Calcium -Bicarbonate - Chloride -Phosphate -Sulfate
Test for ammonium ion -make sure urine is alkaline -put a piece of litmus paper in the top of the tube -boil it for 5 minutes -if litmus paper turnns blue, then ammonium ion is present
Test for Calcium Ion -if cloudy precipitate appears, positive for calcium -2% oxalic acid
Test for bicarbonate -slowly drop acid into tube, if gas bubbles appear, it's positive 10% hydrochloric acid
Test for Chloride Ion -Drop 2% silver nitrate, if thick curd;like preipitate, its high concentration -if thin, milky precipitate, low conctentration
Test for Phosphate Ion -add drops of ferric chloride -precipitate=positive
Test for Sulfate Ion -add 2% barium chloride -cloudy precipitate at top = positive
Test for albumin -make sure urine is alkaline -boil for 5 minutes, precipitate could occur (positive) -add HCL. if preicpitate is still there, protein is present in urine (bad!!)
Test for glucose -Benedicts -yeast respiration: phenol red
What did plasma test positive for? -Ammonium -Bicarbonate -Chloride -Phosphate -Albumin -Yeast Respiration
What did plasma test negative for? -Calcium and Sulfate -Urea
Chemical Breakdown reaction of Urea -called: Urease H4CN2O + H2O --> CO2 + 2 NH3
Asexual Reproduction no fusion of a sperm and a secondary oocyte and usually requires mitosis followed by cytokinesis
Sexual Reproduction -More complicated with meiosis required to form gametes (sperm and secondary oocyte), the specialized haploid cells that must fuse to form a dipoid zygote.
Binary Fission -method of asexual repro -a parent cell mitotically divides into two cells of equal size -occurs in protozoas and in many invertebrates like sea anemones
Budding -method of asexual repro - a new individual grows out from the body of the parent organism and either splits from the parent or stays attched to form large colonie -yeast, cnidarians like Hydra, flatworms
Fragmentation -method of asexual repro -the body breaks into several pieces and each piece develops into a new individual. -fould in sponges, cnidarians, and tunicates -usually accompanied by regeneration
Regeneration -Method of sexual repro -an injury occurs and 2 or more individuals are formed as a result -ex: echinoderms
Apomixis -asexual repro that only occurs in plants -when new plants are formed without pollination -occurs in strawberries and mosses
Sporulation -happens in plants -when haploid spores develop into mature organisms without fusion of gametes -occurs in all land plants that exhibit alternation of generations
Vegetative Reproduction -occurs in plants, asexual repro -where cuttings from shoots or stems of mature plants are physically separated from the parent and placed in water or moist soil where they grow
Vegetative Propagation -asexual, occurs in plants -where commercial crops are not grown from seed becuase of difficulties with that process and the lack of uniformity
Gametes Specialized cells that Transfer complete sets of genes
Gametosgenesis The production of reproductive haploid cells by meiosis and occurs in each gender (spermogensis in males and oogenesis in females_
Spermatogensis -continuous process that occurs in the sertoli cells located in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. -FSH from the anterior pituitary causes each mitotic division to form different types of spermatogonia
Steps of Spermatogenesis A1 spermatogonium (diploid) -> A2-> A3-> A4 -> Intermediate spermatogonium-> B spermatogonium (diploid)-> Primary spermatocyte-> Meiosis 1-> Secondary spermatocyte(haploid)-> Meiosis II -> Spermatids (haploid)-> Spermatozoa (haploid)
Facts about sperms! -sperm maturation takes 64-69 days -1000 permatids produced per heartbeat per testicle -average ejaculate contains around 200-400 million sperm
3 anatomical regions of sperm Head or nucleus-> contains the haploid DNA Midpiece of the tail-> consists of the centriole wrapped tightly with mitochondria that provide energy; this is termed spiral mitochondria Tail-> have proteins that make it motile
Oogenesis not continuous -occurs in the follicles in the cortex of the ovary -happens b/w the 2nd and 7th month of embryotic development -produces 7 million oogonia, but only 2 million enter meiosis and enlarge to form primary oocytespuberty=40,000 oocytes remai
Steps of oogenesis 1.FSH-> maturation of 5 to 12 follicles 2.Follicles Release estrogen 3.Once it matures, it's called a Graafian follicle
Ovulation -the secondary oocyte is released from the rupturing Graafian follicle. At this point the secondary oocyte is ferilizable within 12 to 24 hours
Gametogenesis Where haploid gametes are formed by the potential parents
Fertilization where the gametes fuse to form the diploid zygote which is thus activated to perform metabolic reactions and start dividing
Parthenogenesis -egg develops by itself Caused by: temp differences, increase in Ca ions inside plasma membrane, gamete can be diploid and fertilization is not neede
Cleavage rapid cell division with little or no protein synthesis; therefore, there is no increase in size of the egg mass. -process is callllled blastulation
Bastula -the end result of cleavage -a hollow ball of thousands of cells
Gastrulation -differentiated cells move appropriate location and produce an embryo with three layers of cells
Organogenesis -rudimentary formation of various organs in the embryo
Neuralation -the formation of the neural tube that is the basis for the nervous system -followed by further differentiation and rapid growth of the embryo
Oviparous -lay eggs outside that female's body where the young will hatch
Viviparous --organisms give birth to live young that have been nourished in the uterus by blood via the placenta
Ovoviviparous -organisms incorporate both mechanisms -reain fertilized eggs in the oviduct where the embryos are nourished by egg yolk, after hatching within the uterus the young are then delivered alive
4 types of eggs found in Kindgom Animalia: mammals=isolecithal- small amt of yolk that is evenly dist thru egg Amphibians=mesolecithal egg- mod amt of ylk localized in one place Birds and reptile=tolelecithal-large amt. yolk wich is the swollen egg cell Insects-centrolecithal- lg central yolk
The secondary Oocyte -in amphibians -consists of 2 portions: -animal hemisphere or pole: dark grey or brown since it contains melanin granules =Vegetal Hemisphere or vegetal pole: lacks melanin granules, yolk-filled portion is yellow -released into water
Zygote -the one cell stage boefore division starts -heavier portion (vegetal pole) faces down
Grey Cresent -and indication fertilization has occured -forms on the side opposite to sperm penetration bc there is a pinching of the plasma membrane at the penetration site and this exposes the lighter grey cells on the other side
Early Cleavage -marked by the appearance of a groove on the animal pole of the zygote -cleavage furrow extends toward the opposite side of zygote; two cells now -4 cell stage, cleavage furrow at right angles of first 3rd cleavage (horizontal), perpindicular to 1st 2
Morula -what is formed at the 32-cell stage -solid ball
Blastocoel -as the cells continue to divide, this is the fluid-filled space -bc of the localized yolk in one hemisphere in frogs, the unequal division during cleavage results in polarity w the blastocoel nearer the animal pole
Archenteron As the gastrocoel enlarges inward, the cells surrounding it organize as endoderm. At this point the cavity is called this and eventually becomes the primitive gut.
Gastrocoel The cells of the blastopore will move away from the blastopore and form this cavity
Endoderm this germ layer is made of those cells that first moved inward made from 2 parts of the blastula: marginal and vegetal marginal endoderm= foregut vegetal endoderm lies on the floor of the archenteron=midgut
What does the endoderm turn into? -inner layer -digestive tract -glands including the thymus, thyroid, parathyroid -epithelia linig of digestive system -respiratory system -portions of the urogenital system
Mesoderm -middle layer -cells that invaginate at the ventral and lateral margins of the blastopore
What does the mesoderm turn into? -skeletal -muscular -urogenital -cardiovascular -lymphatic -peritoneum -the dermis of the integument -notochord
Ectoderm -outermost layer -arises from the spreading and thinning of the remaining exterior animal pole cells that enclose the embryo two types: neural ectoderm and cutaneous ectoderm
Neural Ectoderm will become the brain and spinal cord of the nervous system
Cutaneous Ectoderm -will make epidermal structures the skin and its derivatives (hair and follicles, nails, claws) -sensory receptors in the epidermis, sweat glands, and the cornea of and lens of the eye
The end of gastrulation is marked by.. complete closuer of the blastopore
Neural plate -this is where the neural ectoderm on the dorsal side of the embryo begins to thicked and form this
Neural Groove -the central area of the neural plate gradually becomes depressed to form this while the lateral edges of the plate thicken to form the neural ford
Notochord derived from dorsal mesoderm and is a flexible rod that occurs during development of chordates
Somites -the structures that are arranged serially on both sides of the notochord
Created by: hiimhaley