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HA Ch. 19 (21)

The Heart

The heart is a...shaped, ...with two functions cone...musclar double-pump
the right side of the heart receives...and pumps blood to... oxygen-poor blood from body tissues...lungs for oxygenation and dispose of carbon dioxide
the left side of the heart receives...and pumps... the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs...oxygen-rich blood throughout the body to supply oxygen and nutrients
pulmonary circuit includes blood vessels from the heart that carry blood to and from the lungs
systemic circuit includes blood vessels from the heart that transport blood to and from all body tissues
atria (2) receives chambers of the hearts and blood from the pulmonary and systemic circuits
ventricles (2) are the main pumping chambers that pump blood around circuits
the pericardium is a triple-layered sac which is composed of fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium
fibrous pericardium is the...layer of sac made up of... outer...dense CT that adheres to the diaphragm inferiorly
superiorly, the pericardium is fused to roots of the great vessels that enter and exit the heart
two layers of serous pericardium include the parietal layer and the visceral layer
parietal layer is the...layer which adheres to outer...inner surface of fibrous pericardium
visceral layer is the...layer of the serous pericardium and is...with the... inner...continuous...the parietal layer
the visceral layer of serous pericardium lies on the heart and is considered a part of the heart wall
visceral layer of serous pericardium is also known as epicardium
between the parietal and visceral layers, the pericardial cavity contains...which... serous fluid...decreases friction created between the beating heart and the outer wall of the pericardial sac
layers of the heart wall include epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
epicardium is often infiltrated with fat, esp in older people
myocardium forms the..consisting mainly of... bulk of the heart...cardiac muscle
the myocardium is the layer that actually contracts
cardiac muscle cells (in myocardium) are elongated, circularly and spirally arranged in networks of cardiac muscles
endocardium are sheets of endothelium on a thin layer of CT which lines the heart chambers and makes up the heart valves
the right and left atria are superiorly divided by interatrial septum
the R an L atria are inferiorly divided by interventricular septum
the right atrium forms the entire...and is the...via... entire right border of the human heart...receiving chamber for oxygen-poor blood...three veins
vessel openings in the right atrium include superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
superior vena cava is from ...and is superior to the... upper body regions...diaphragm
inferior vena cava is from...and is inferior to the... lower body regions...diaphragm
coronary sinus is from the heart wall
external feature of the right atrium includes the right auricle
the right auricle is a...and projects to the small flap shaped like a dog's ear...left from the superior corner of the atrium
internal features of the right atrium include crista terminalis, smooth-walled posterior region, and pectinate muscles
2 internal regions of the right atrium are seperated by the...which is an important landmark in locating the sites where crista terminalis...veins enter the right atrium
anterior region lined by horizontal ridges pectinate muscles
fossa ovalis is a depression in the interatrial septum that marks the spot where an opening existed in the fetal heart, posterior to the end of the crista termanlis
tricuspid valve the right atrium opens into the right ventricle through this valve, inferiorly and anteriorly
right ventricle receives blood from the...and pumps it into the... right atrium...pulmonary circuit via pulmonary trunk(arteries)
the right ventricle forms most of the anterior surface of the heart
pulmonary valve in the right ventricle; the ...opens into the...through this valve superiorly right ventricle...pulmonary trunk
special features of the interior of the R ventricle trabeculae carneae, papillary muscles, chordae tendinae
trabeculae carneae irregular ridges of muscle in the right ventricular wall
papillary muscles cone-shaped projections from the walls
chordae tendinae strong bands, which project superiorly from the papillary muscles to the flaps (cusps) of the tricuspid valve
left atrium makes up most of the heart's posterior surface OR BASE of the heart
the left atrium receives...returning from the...through... oxygenated blood...lungs...two right and two left pulmonary veins, via the pulmonary circuit
the left auricle is the only visible part of the left atrium anteriorly
internal feature of the L atrium pectinate musles
the walls of the left atrium are mostly... smooth-surfaced with pectinate muscles lining the auricle only
the left atrium opens into the...via the... left ventricle...mitral (bicuspid valve)
left ventricle is also called the systemic pump
the left ventricle dominates the heart's inferior surface and forms the apex of the heart
the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic circuit
special features of the interior of the left ventricle include trabeculae carneae, papillary muscles, chordae tendinae, cusps of mitral valve
supeirorly, the left ventricle opens into the stem artery (aorta) of the systemic circulatioin via aortic (semilunar) valve
pathway of blood through the heart; oxygen poor blood enters the heart's right atrium
oxygen poor blood comes into the right atrium from upper body regions superior to the diaphragm via the superior vena cava
oxygen poor blood comes into the right atrium also from the lower body regions inferior to the diaphragm via the inferior vena cava
oxygen poor blood comes into the right atrium from the heart wall via the carotid sinus
the r atrium...and, with the aid of..., the oxygen poor blood is propelled from the...through the... gravity...right atrium...tricuspid valve...right ventricle
the r ventricle contracts and propels blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve through the pulmonary trunk (arteries)
the oxygen-poor blood flows to the lungs via the pulmonary circuit to become oxygenated and to dispel carbon dioxide
the oxygen-rich blood flows back to the heart and enters the left atrium via the pulmonary veins
the l atrium contracts and propels...blood through the oxygenated blood..mitral valve to the left ventricle
the left ventricle contracts and propels blood through the... aortic semilunar valve out of the heart through the aorta and its branches
this oxygenated blood is pumped throughout the body via the systemic circuit to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
after the exchange, the blood becomes...and returns to the... oxygen poor again...heart's right atrium to continue the cycle through the pulmonary and systemic circuits
the heart valves enforce the...through the heart in the following order: one way flow of blood...atria, ventricles, great arteries (pulmonary trunk and aorta)
each heart valve consists of two or three cusps, flaps of endocardium, reinforced by cores of dense CT
atrioventricular (AV) valves are located at junctions of the atria & their respective ventricles
right atrioventircular valve tricuspid valve - 3cusps
left atrioventricular valve bicuspid valve/mitral valve - 2 cusps
semilunar valves are located at the junction of the ventricles and the great arteries
pulmonary semilunar valve right ventricle to pulmonary trunks (3 cusps)
aortic semilunar valve left ventricle to aorta (3 cusps)
when a valve is open it allows blood flow
when a valve is closed it prevents backflow of blood
AV valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction
the chordae tendinae and papillary muslces that attach to the AV valves serve as guy wires by anchoring the cusps in their closed position
AV valves prevent backflow into the atria during ventricular contraction
semilunar valves prevent backflow from the great arteries into the ventricles
closing of the valves causes vibrationsin the adjacent blood and heart walls, resulting in "lub-dub" sounds
lub = closing of AV valves at the start of ventricular systole
dub = closing of semilunar valves at the end of ventricular systole
the fibrous skeleton of the heart is made of electrically inert, dense CT that lies in the plane between the atria and ventricles
the fibrous skeleton of the heart surrounds all four heart valves like handcuffs
the fibrous skeleton anchors the valve cusps
the fibrous skeleton prevents overdilation of the valve openings as blood flows through
the fibrous skeleton is the point of insertion for cardiac muscle bundles in the atria and ventricles
the fibrous skeleton blocks the direct spread of eletrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles
the cardiac cycle consists of periods of systole and diastole
the sequence of contraction in vivo = both the atria always contract together followed by the ventricles simultaneously contracting
heart beat single sequence of atrial contraction followed by ventricular contraction
systole (atrial or ventricular) contraction of a heart chamber
diastole (atrial or ventricular) time during which the heart chamber is relaxing and filling with blood
both atria and ventricles experience systole and diastole
the walls of the atria are much...than those of ventricles because the atria need to... thinner...exert little effort with the aid of gravity to propel blood inferiorly to the ventricles
the intrinsic means by which the heart muscle generates and conducts electrical impulses
the conducting system is a series of specialized cardiac muscle cells that carry impulses throughout the heart musculature, signaling the heart chambers to contract in the proper sequence
conducting system component; sinoatrial node is a ...shaped mass of...that lies in the... crescent...muscle cells...wall of the right atrium just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava
the impulse that signals each heartbeat begins at the sinoatrial node
the sinoatrial node sets the basic heart rate by generating 70-80 pulses/min and is the heart's pacemaker
conducting system components; internodal fibers go from the... sinoatrial node...AV node
atrioventriculare node (AV) cells are...but typical... small...cardiac muslce cells
a brief delay of...occurs in the AV node to ensure that the ventricles... contraction-signaling impulses...fill completely before contraction
conducting system components; AV bundle cells are small but typical cardica muscle cells
conducting system components; R and L bundle branches crura
conducting system components; purkinje fibers are also called... which are special... conduction myofibers...large-diameter, barrel-shaped muscle cells called purkinje myocytes, containing relatively few myofilaments
extrinsic neuralcontrols can alter the heart's inherent rate set by the SA node
visceral sensory fibers nerves supplying the heart
parasympathetic fibers decrease the heart rate; arise as branches of the vagus nerve in the neck and thorax
sympathetic fibers increase the rate and force of heart contractions. from the cervical and upper thoracic ganglia
all nerves serving the heart pass through the cardiac plexus on the trachea before entering the heart
the autonomic nervous system fibers project to the cardiac musculature, but mostly project to the SA and AV nodes and the coronary arteries
Created by: handrzej



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