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BIO202 - CH17 – Hemostasis - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

Platelets are? Cytoplasmic fragments of large cells - megakaryocytes. They act in clotting process.
Platelet formation is regulated by hormone __. thrombopoietin
3 steps of hemostasis (1) vascular spasma (2) platelet plug formation (3) coagulation
Platelets stick to exposed collagen fibers due to __. von Willebrand factor (VWF) synthesized by endothelial cells
Serotonin in platelets __ vascular spasms. enhance
What is Thromboxane A2 & what does it do? Short-lived prostaglandin derrivative - stimulates clotting - causing postive feedback cycle.
Blood clotting is a __ feedback cycle. positive
Blood clotting or not depends on what balance? Between clotting factors (procoagulants) & anticoagulants.
Most clotting factors are made by __. the liver
Phase 1 of clotting involves? Intrinsic or extrinsic pathways to Prothrombin Activator - slowest step
In Phase 2 of clotting... prothrombin activator catalyzes prothrombin into thrombin.
Phase 3 of clotting... Thrombin catalyzes polymerization of fibrinogen & fibrin mech is formed
Platelets contain __ proteins. contractile (actin & myosin)
What is fibrinolysis? Removal of unneeded clots when healing has occured.
Plasmin is a __-digesting enzyme. plasmin
Name 2 mechanisms that limit clot growth. (1) swift removal of clotting factors (2) inhibition of activated clotting factors
For clotting to occur in the first place,the concentration of __ must reach certain critical levels. procoagulants
Heparin __ thrombin & the intrinsic pathway. inhibits
Name 2 antithrombic substances. nitric oxide & prostacyclin
Which vitamin when it reacts with oxygen is a potent anticoagulant? Vitamin E
Thromboembolic disorders result from? Conditions that cause undesireable clot formation
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Involves whidespread clotting & severe bleeding
Asprin does what? Antiprostaglandin drug that inhibits thromboxane A2 - blocks platelet aggregation & plug formation.
__ is teh anticoagulant most used clinically. heparin
The anticoagulant warfin does what? Interferes with Vitamin K in production of some procoagulants.
DIC - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - occurs most commonly when? Pregnancy complecation, result of septicemia, or incompativle blood transfusions.
Thrombocytopenia Deficient number of platelets that causes spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels all over body.
Vitamin K is required by liver to produce __. Clotting factors
Hemophilia A results from? Deficiency of factor 8 - X-linked - prolonged bleeding
Loss of more than 30% of blood volume results in __. severe shock
Agglutination Antibodies act against foreign cells & cause them to clump - mismatched transfusion
Hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh incompatibility - so many RBCs are destroyed that fetus dies.
hemostasis Process that stops bleeding & prevents blood loss - including spasms in affected blood vessels, platelet plugs & clotting.
2 ways blood clots form intrinsic & extrinsic
At least __ varieties of naturally occuring RBC antigens are common in humans. 30
A person with neither A or B antigens is? Group O - possess both anti-A & anti-B antibodies or agglutinins.
There are __ different types of Rh agglutinogens. 45
The 3 common Rh antigens are? C, D & E
Most americans are Rh __. Postitive - carry the D antigen
RhoGAM is a serum containing __. anti-Rh agglutinins
Transfusion reactions can result in circulating hemoglobin which __. allows hemoglobin to pass freely into the kidney tubules & causes renal shutdown/failure.
An agglutinin is a __. plasma antibody
A high eosinophil count may indicate? a parasitic infection or allergic response
SMAC is a __. blood chemistry profile
Intrinsic clotting mechanism involves substances in blood itself - enzyme thrombin & protein fibrinogen makes fibrin thread that net blood cells & platelets into blood clot.
Extrinsic clotting mechanism. Triggered outside the blood itself - comes from damaged blood vessels & surrounding tissue - formation of thrombin.
Thrombus Clot that stays where it forms in an unbroken blood vessel
Embolus Clot that breaks free & circulates through blood stream.
Created by: Ladystorm